Relevance. Due to centennial anniversary of soviet psychology, we would like to make analysis for the history of its institutional and subject formation within the context of Russian human study evolution, including its prerequisites before revolution and after-soviet development.
Objective. Characterize briefly, within the context of reflexive science studies and art process personology, psychology development directions and institutions, role of key scholars, summarize major achievements, including unique identity of soviet psychological science.
Methods. Analysis for subject and institutional aspects of Russian psychology evolution, describing institutions where major schools were residing and where key leaders and participants fulfilled their duties.
Results. First part contains and depicts science studies and institutional approach on presenting the historical span of Russian psychology. Second part depicts evolution of institutions, leaders’ succession and interaction of schools and directions established. Final part contains generalized conclusions on development logics and achievements of soviet psychology as preconditions to further after-soviet establishment of contemporary (Russian) psychology.
Conclusions. Soviet psychology based human studies existing before revolution legitimately succeeds the preceding evolution phase and provides evident basis for further development of psychological science during after-soviet period. Soviet scholars have developed ample materialist-dialectic methodology for study of psyche, which is the system of psychological knowledge from perspective of activity approach that had quite peculiar impetus on contemporary psychology. Currently legacy of soviet psychology interacts broadly and assimilates with foreign up-to-date approaches within the context of XXI century challenges.
The article presents the results of a study of professional development stages of crises in the choice of profession, vocational training, and at the initial stage of professional activity. We used the methods of a comprehensive program aimed at studying the performance of educational and professional development, the severity of the crisis experiences, personality traits and coping strategies. The sample included high school students, university students, and budding professionals. In total 1,500 people aged 15 to 28 years old. The study revealed a high prevalence of crises in all the studied stages of professional development. The content and extent of the crisis is determined by the stage of development experiences, personal resources, and social situation of development. It is shown that increasing the importance of the choice of profession stage for the subsequent stages of professional development.
In this part of the article theoretical positions proposed in the first part of the article, are implemented on empirical material of reflexivepsychological analysis of introspective self-life-creativity of the outstanding writer and thinker M.M. Zoshchenko. Given held them all his life a dramatic existential introspection M.M. Zoshchenko and corrected to reflect the semantic field of their identity, which was reflected in the development of introspective style as his artistic creativity, and social behavior of the individual. In conclusion, characterized the role of reflective dialogue as a means of enhancing introspective self-perception and self-development of individuality
By: Semionov I.N.;
Available Online: 12/31/2015
First part of the article analyzes the historical and scientific, etymological and methodological problems of psycho-reflexivity personology study self-perception and self-observation – through introspection – a man’s own Self as an integrated personality and social personality. Considered external opposition, socio-objective determination of human mental activity and its internal, reflexive sense of life, the source of which is the individual amateur I. From these positions explicated logic of perceptual psychology: the study of perception through introspection objectivity to subjectivity reflection reflexive self-perpetuating I proposed ontology of psychological reality of the inner life, where its components are incorporated such as: self-actualization, self-perception, self-knowledge, self-understanding, self-awareness, self-determination, selfactualization personality I. In the context of reflexive psychology, personology considered reflexive nature of introspection problem-conflict situations in the self-identity sphere of artistic and scientific creativity. In the second part of the article the proposed theoretical propositions are realized on empirical material reflexive psychological analysis of introspective self-life-creativity outstanding writer and thinker M.M. Zoshchenko. Given held them all his life a dramatic existential introspection M.M. Zoshchenko and corrected to reflect the semantic field of their identity, which was reflected in the development of introspective style as his artistic creativity, and social behavior of the individual. In conclusion, characterized the role of reflective dialogue as a means of enhancing introspective self-perception and self-identity I am human.
By: Semionov I.N.;
Available Online: 09/30/2015
The psychoanalytical theory of object relations along with the subsequent theory of structural changes served as basis for the following research. The intrapsychic field of personality’s object relations is formed in the process of internalization of significant objects, relationships and their corresponding affects. The following article is dedicated to empirical testing of the main assumptions underlying the psychoanalytic theory of structural change. The objective of this research was to evaluate in a structured way the dynamics of reorganization of object relations and intrapsychic structures of the personality of the subject undergoing psychoanalysis. The evaluation was based on the method of psycholinguistic analysis. The results of the psycholinguistic analysis of the dynamics of intrapsychic changes confirmed main hypothesis: namely that in the process of psychoanalysis there is a reorganization of internal object relations; psychoanalytic work brings about intrapsychic transformations in personality, specifically, the indicator of the psychic structure Ego increases while at the same time the indicators of psychic structures Id and Super-Ego decrease.
The article presents the overview of the basic approaches, concepts and directions in studying personality in neuropsychology. Neuropsychiatric approach is based on phenomenological description of personality disorders in patients with various brain damages. Neuropsychological studies of personality held in A.R. Luria school that are mainly present in works under E.D. Homskaya guidance, in order to experimentally study brain organization of personality suggest using structural-functional model that includes emotional, motivational and executive processes and self-awareness. Aphasiology postulates, that personality disorders are secondary to communication disabilities that occur in speech pathology. Finally, neuropsychoanalysis focuses on cerebral mechanisms of unconscious processes and personality functioning in different pathological models. The paper presents the results of the study held. With the use of neuropsychological syndrome analysis method 50 young adult male patients have been studied with pathocharacterological spectrum disorders divided in two groups: schizoid personality disorder (30 patients) and schizotypal personality disorder (20 patients). It has been established that both groups have specific cognitive disturbances that indicate frontal-parietal-thalamic connections. Lateral differences are revealed: neuropsychological symptoms that are associated with left hemisphere dysfunction are specific for schizotypal personality disorder; neurocognitive deficit that is associated with right hemisphere is specific for patients with schizoid personality disorder. Perspectives of personality neuropsychology are discussed.
This paper presents empirical study supporting the hypothesis that autobiographical memory may serve as a compensation resource for destructive transformation of self-identity in terms of intrapersonal conflict in alcoholism. 51 non-amnestic alcoholics abstinent from alcohol participated in the study.Participants got a standard piece of paper with a horizontal arrow line on it with instruction to consider this line as it was representing the entire lives (Life Line), to locate the most important and memorable events around the timeline, to date the events and to indicate valance and intensity of emotion associated with each recalled event by distance from the arrow top (positive) to its bottom (negative). Three findings relevant to the goal of achievement an acceptable level of self-confidence by transformation of autobiographical memory were identified. First, there was 30% increase number of events on Life Line in comparison to healthy controls (n=92). We explained the result as compensatory mechanism balancing negative experiences of being alcoholic by positive memories to maintain positivity index close to controls. Second, there was a shift of memories to the left part of Life Line. That means that alcoholics both started and finished their Life Lines from earlier memories than controls. We refer this finding to attempt to keep a normal subjective duration of event filled part of past. Third, we found that in alcoholics there was no reminiscence bump in time distribution of memories. In our opinion, it reflects the fact of incomplete acquisition of cultural life script structure.
The psychoanalytical theory of object relations along with the subsequent theory of structural changes served as basis for the following research. The intrapsychic field of personality’s object relations is formed in the process of internalization of significant objects, relationships and their corresponding affects. The following article is dedicated to empirical testing of the main assumptions underlying the psychoanalytic theory of structural change. The objective of this research was to evaluate in a structured way the dynamics of reorganization of object relations and intrapsychic structures of the personality of the subject undergoing psychoanalysis. The evaluation was based on the method of differentiated semantic categories. The results of the semantic analysis of the dynamics of intrapsychic changes confirmed main hypothesis: namely that in the process of psychoanalysis there is a reorganization of internal object relations; psychoanalytic work brings about intrapsychic transformations in personality, specifically, the indicator of the psychic structure Ego increases while at the same time the indicators of psychic structures Id and Super-Ego decrease.
The aim of the article is to introduce the concept of personality and character which is based on the activity theory approach by A.N. Leontiev. The introductory part of the work gives a short history of characterology whose analysis reveals apparent uncertainty in understanding the subject matters of character psychology and personality psychology. They are directly (character) or indirectly (personality) confined to a person’s psychic individuality. However, the specific content of this individuality appears to be so broad and various that characterology starts losing its clear contours while personality does not find any generally accepted definition. In the framework of the developed concept, personality is regarded as a structure of life meanings while character is seen as an instrumental level which accepts life meanings for performance and implements them in human actions. Nonidentity of the two studied formations is shown: they are different in terms of content, function in human psychics, units of structure, general construction and genesis. Some examples are given based on the data of ethnic psychology. They show how a sense formation which is the same for different nations is realized through unequal characterological techniques. On the other hand, a few sense formations can be expressed by a single action or stereotype. In conclusion problems of correlation between personality and character and the source of their generation are discussed.
This research is devoted to the investigation of the role of conscious self-regulation in human development and activity. The concept of conscious self-regulation of a subject’s voluntary activity and the history of its research conducted in Psychological Institute RAE are discussed. The results of the research dedicated to the typology of individual styles of self-regulation and their relationship with educational and professional activity effectiveness are presented. Personal dispositions have specific influence on the individual peculiarities of regulatory profile. It is concluded that the integrated system of individual self-regulation includes dynamic and content aspects of a personality, its conscious and subconscious structures for development and achievement of goals.
The paper presents analysis of meditation as a form of achievement of altered state of consciousness by concentration of attention and «calming of mind». Buddhist psychopractices and contemporary psychotherapy are compared in the frame of work with imagination. The authors analyze Buddhist Tantric meditation on images of spiritual creatures, which allows the transformation of personal traits in probationer. It is argued that under the conditions of meditation the process of change of categorization takes place, right up to complete stoppage of categorization in nirvana.
The article presents g. gonzalez’s integrative model of alcohol and drug abuse prevention on campus. This theoretical structure bases on models such as health belief model, social learning theory and problem behavior theory. it focuses on different elements — the individual level, the level of the environment and the level of interaction between the individual and the environment. we present concrete activities included in the integrative model, analyze the effectiveness of preventive programs among university students and the experience of using the model at the University of Florida. gonzalez’s model can be used to assess the effectiveness of prevention programs.
Psychoanalysis presents unique empirical material for the research of the dynamics of personality reflection in altered states of consciousness and its impact on different aspects of vital activity of the personality. Transference and countertransference altered states of consciousness were in focus of interest of the first part of the article. It was shown that as altered states of consciousness become deeper during the psychoanalytical process the reflexive processes of a personality enhance, become more active and change qualitatively, which is expressed in particular in the formation of the active «reflexive I». Reflexive activity of the personality in countertransference and combined transference-countertransference altered states of consciousness was analyzed in this second part of the article.