Background. The relevance of this study is associated with the widespread use of social media by adolescents with a high risk of turning to aggression and violence.
Objective. The purpose of the study is to investigate the characteristics of adolescents' perceptions of peer profiles in social networks that vary in degrees of “security,” and their readiness to carry out various communicative actions depending on their psychological characteristics. We hypothesized that: 1) There is a connection between the psychological characteristics of adolescent users of a social network, and their ability to differentiate profiles of peers-users of social networks and communicative actions in social networks; and 2) The oculomotor activity of adolescent users of social networks is associated with the degree of attractiveness of a peer profile.
Design. We used the methods of “Peer attachment” (G. Armden, M.T. Greenberg, 1987 as adapted by G.V. Burmenskaya, 2015); Emotional intelligence (D.V. Lyusin, 2009); Recognition of emotions by sight (S. Baron-Cohen et al., 2001); cognitive methods for assessing social information (S.V. Molchanov et al., 2018); eye-tracking technique; and conversation. The study included 40 adolescents 14 to 17 years old.
Results.We distinguished three groups which differed in their attachment to peers, emotional intelligence, and cognitive methods of processing social information; they comprised three types – “idealizing,” “selective,” and “cautious.” We showed that the "selective type" is characterized by the highest degree of differentiation of "dangerous" and "safe" profiles of peers in social networks, and high selectivity in implementing various communicative actions. The greater attractiveness of the main information in a peer’s profile is reflected in more fixations, fixation time, and returns to the zone.
Acknowledgments.This work was financially supported by the Russian Federal Property Fund No. 18-013-01080 “Cognitive methods for processing social information from the Internet as a factor in the formation of adolescents' ideas about the moral regulation of relations in the modern information society”.
Available Online: 31.08.2019
Background. The widespread use of personal computers in everyday life has led to the need for their use in the programs of children's institutions. However, so far little is known about the impact of the use of personal computers on the cognitive abilities of preschoolers.
Objective. The goal of the study to analyze key empirical data presented in the current scientific literature and to identify the relationship between the use of information technology and the cognitive abilities of preschool children.
Design. We used three tests that, in our opinion, allow us to assess the cognitive abilities of children in this age group: “TV,” “Your vocabulary,” and “Labirint”.
Results. Our results reveal the nature of the relationship between cognitive changes in children and their user activity on a personal digital device (computer) which is firmly established in the life of not only the family, but also a preschool educational organization. As a result of the deep theoretical analysis of the data presented in foreign and domestic literature and electronic sources, we were able to structure a study, the logic of which, along with the use of mathematical statistics, allows us to come to reliable conclusions.
Conclusion. From the perspective of the development of cognitive skills in children of preschool age, the results showed that the time spent at the computer has a positive effect which is cumulative, since it has an impact on test results one year later.
Relevance. In modern medicine, the question of an individual approach to the prevention and treatment of patients with dental diseases becomes relevant. Consideration of the personal characteristics of patients is necessary both for building a successful communication with a doctor and for predicting their adherence to medical recommendations.
Objectives. The study of the relationship of individual-personal characteristics of patients undergoing dental treatment, with a commitment to follow the recommendations of the doctor.
Methods and sampling. The study involved patients who underwent examination and therapeutic treatment in the dental clinic (63 women and 35 men). The study took place in two stages. At the first stage, the level of dental health was measured (by 5 indices) and a psychodiagnostic study was conducted to determine the individual and personal characteristics of patients (type of interpersonal relationships, character accentuation, extraversion / introversion); a questionnaire on attitudes towards dental health, developed by the staff at Pavlov’s University. Patients were given detailed instructions on proper oral hygiene. At the second stage (in a month), dental health indices were re-measured in patients.
Results. Adherence to the implementation of the recommendations of the dentist is associated with such personality characteristics as hyperthymic and demonstrative character traits, altruistic and authoritarian types of behavior in interpersonal relationships and extroversion. Insufficient level of care for dental health and low commitment to follow the recommendations of the dentist are associated with such personality features as anxious, fearful and dysthymic types of character accentuations and introversion.
Conclusion. The ability to predict patient behavior regarding compliance with the recommendations of the dentist based on the diagnosis of the psychological profile of patients opens up prospects for developing personalized prevention programs for each type of patient and introducing case management into the dental practice, in which an individual treatment plan is developed for each patient personal and social characteristics.
Relevance. The results of the interaction of man and the environment are fixed and function in the mind with the help of signs and symbols. The need to study the patterns of mastering the subject content presented in a symbolic form, as well as socialization in general, makes it important to appeal to the fundamental question of the correlation of symbolic function with the structure and work of consciousness.
Objective. This article represents the processual model of consciousness allowing to consider the symbolic function as a moving force of human connection with the surrounding world. The essence of this connection is cognitive.
Methods. Analysis, synthesis and modeling. The study was carried out in the concept of a semiotic approach.
Results. Social origin of consciousness allows to model its structure. The following components of consciousness can be distinguished: the sensual fabric of an image; biodynamic fabric of the movement and action; meaning; sense.
The symbolic function should be studied within the concept of the processual model consciousness. Logic of processual model imposes studying of signs and symbols moving from the separate nominal condition through the systemic organization to the reflection.
Conclusions. Consciousness can be studied through the processual model, where the main characteristic of its elements is the interaction and mediation by signs and symbols. The primacy of a sign or symbol is determined by the degree of orientation of the subject in the situation. The transition of a sign into a symbol occurs as a result of the inclusion of a separate sign in an increasing number of sign-symbolic systems. This is possible in the process of personal temporal and spatial inclusion in the general vector of the “chronotope”.
Relevance. Cartoons carry the information about the world, human relations, norms of behavior and values to children, forming a kind of information "zone of the nearest development" of a child in the terminology of L.S. Vygotsky. In a situation of intercultural competition, it is important to understand what symbols, values, meanings, norms of behavior, perceived from domestic and foreign cartoons, can positively and/or negatively transform the process of socialization and development of the child's personality.
Objective. Research of specificity of perception of esthetic and moral characteristics of heroes of domestic and foreign animated films by children of preschool and primary school age.
Methods. Focus group interview, expert survey, semantic differential.
Sample. 24 kids 4-5 years; 30 pupils of primary school 8-9 years. Kindergarten teachers and teachers of primary school, 10 females 36-50 years.
Results. Foreign cartoons in the perception of children surpass domestic in quality of performance, modernity and attractiveness of the behavioral patterns of the characters, but lose in depth of the topic revelation. For preschoolers, the main carriers of values are the main characters of cartoons. Categories: "mind", "force", “beauty”, "kindness", "danger", "justice" are leadingin assessments of behavior of characters. Children record social distance through the categories of "Senior – Junior" and "Big – Small". Younger pupils do not see the moral background of the behavior of the small character of “Tom and Jerry” cartoon.
Conclusion. The results show that children are able to distinguish cartoon characters by cognitive categories, aesthetic category and also by moral. The content of the information environment, in which children immersed today, can inhibit the development of communication abilities of children and their emotional intelligence.
Available Online: 29.08.2019
Relevance. Knowledge of the spontaneous development of learning skills (LS) of University students is important and relevant, because the lack of LS adversely affects the success of independent learning, reducing the level of social and professional mobility of students and their competitiveness in the labor market.
Objective. Determining the dynamics and extent of spontaneous development of basic and additional LS students with an engineering profile in usual side developmental nature of learning at the University, as well as of their relationship with academic performance.
Methods. For the diagnosis of basic LS specially designed tasks to build knowledge on the material of technical disciplines were used. Additional LS were tested using the author's questionnaire with scaling.
Sample. 135 students of the 1st, 4th and 6th courses of technical universities of Moscow: 89 boys and 46 girls aged 18 to 33 years.
Results. During the full 6-year course of study, students of engineering profile showed an increase in the level of basic LS: non-independent knowledge building (+31.25%), independent knowledge building (+12%), mixed knowledge building (+81.96%). The growth of additional skills as conscious work with the cognitive sphere (+2.8%) and with emotional states (+13.33%) was established, but the ability to work with motives and volitional regulation decreased (-8.18%), as well as to work with knowledge as learning objectives (-16.12%), and to plan the order and time of activities (-10.21%).
Conclusion. It is necessary to take into account the reduced opportunities of students in decoding and generalization in the process of obtaining knowledge from messages with their ambiguity and a large amount of specific content. These types of basic LS need to be purposefully developed. The negative dynamics in the development of a number of additional LS also indicates the need for their special development at the University.
Available Online: 29.08.2019
Relevance. The designing of tools to identify a psychological distress in network is one of the most significant challenges of the era of information technology. There are evidences of certain peculiarities of the speech and textual activity of frustrated person. However, for texts in Russian, any tool for monitoring of the intensity of frustration in online content does not currently exist.
Objective. The purpose of our work is the listing of text features to carry out automatic analysis of the network content for detecting texts of frustrated users.
Methods. The material of the study is a set of posts and comments of 2-10 sentences collected in social networks LiveJournal, Pikabu and Facebook were written by 100 Russian-speaking users aged 27-64 years. The texts were divided as written by unexcited persons (500 texts) and by frustrated persons (500 texts). For automatic text analysis, the "RSA Machine" created in Federal Research Center "Computer Science and Control" of Russian Academy of Sciences was used, which allows to determine 197 text features, to compare texts, and to identify the most important dividing features. Mathematically, the texts were classified using the machine learning.
Results. The Random Forest method with a preliminary binarization procedure revealed the most significant features of text written by frustrated person: the sentiment; the frequency of punctuation, negative word forms and first-person pronouns; the number of semantic roles causative, liquidative and destructive; number of particles, invectives and words from the vocabulary of resistance.
Conclusions. Using the identified features the network texts written by frustrated person can be confidently determined; it is applicable for monitoring in order to ensure information and psychological security.
Relevance. There are set of terms and theories, that describe human`s experience of interaction with the outside world. This leads to difficulties in comparing and analyzing the results of empirical studies of human representations of the world. This phenomenon is clearly manifested in the study of human concepts of the personal computer, actively developed by psychologists and specialists in human-computer interfaces design.
Objective. In this work we pretend to explain the requirements for empirical study of personal computers mental models (MM) structure in the framework of cultural-activity paradigm, based on the analysis of the history of MM research in various areas of cognitive psychology and cultural activity approach.
Results. We discussed the main approaches to the study of mental models in psychology, characteristics of MM and specificity of methods of their study. The concept of MM is compared with similar constructs developed in various areas of psychology: "cognitive map", "scheme", "mental representation", "meaning", "image of the world". We also analyzed the possibility of operationalization of this construct. The MM concept are compared with the A.N. Leontiev`s concept of the «image of the world» and features of the MM researches in cultural activity paradigm was showed. The concept of MM is discussed in the context of different approaches to the study of meanings in linguistics and psychology: the approach of fixed meanings and research of embodied cognition. Finally, we describe the main characteristics of MM, which should be taken into account to plan an empirical study of human representations of personal computers.
Conclusion. In the construction of empirical research of personal computer`s MM we should require special attention to such characteristics of MM, as their consistency, cultural dependency and integrity; methods of such study should take into account the own activity of the subject.
Relevance. Individual’s entire life is accompanied by jealousy, whether or not the individual recognizes the presence of jealousy.The study of jealousy is continued near the half of century while relations between love and jealousy have stayed unclear. The link between jealousy and partnership satisfaction, especially with such important element as a sexual satisfaction, remain unclear also.
Objective. The clarification of these links, taking into account the dramatic increase of virtual communications between real or potential partners. Our aim was to verify too the construct validity of the Russian and Latvian versions of the new jealousy scale by
Methods. For this reason besides the scale of Dijkstra and his colleagues were used the 45-item scale of Love by Sternberg, the 16-item Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire by Herman, the 25-item Revised Self-Report Jealousy Scale, he Frequency Index of Sexual Satisfaction by Breslav. The sample of the study comprised 75 participants aged 22 to 57 who had stayed in a more or less long-time romantic relationships.
Results. The hypothesis about the correlation between love, satisfaction with partnership relations and sexual satisfaction was confirmed. A significant positive correlation of love and jealousy was also revealed on the 42-item scale used to measure the proneness to reactive jealousy in real and virtual environment.
Conclusion. The correlation between proneness to reactive jealousy, love, and satisfaction with partnership relations found in the study suggests a certain potential of the protective function of this type of jealousy and charges researchers with new tasks in understanding the nature of jealousy and its consequences.
Relevance. In modern psychology, coping is understood as a multicomponent phenomenon. Research conducted using questionnaires allows you to study only one of the components. The proposed simulation puzzle game models the situation of solving group problems and opens up the possibility of observing and research poorly studied aspects, in particular, the ratio of individual and group coping, the dynamics of overcoming a difficult situation.
Objective. The goal is to test a simulation puzzle game as a tool for studying coping with a difficult situation, analyzing the possibilities of a technique for studying human activities to solve difficult life tasks.
Method. A group of 3 people are invited to collect on the proposed silhouette 3 identical figures of 12 elements of pentamino. In the course of the game, a protocol is kept and the video is recorded. At the end of the game is debriefing. The study involved 72 people.
Results. The analysis of signs of a difficult life task in comparison with conditions of game and results of supervision is carried out. A categorical apparatus for content analysis of replicas of participants elaborated.Selected indicators of the coping process: number of proposed solutions, content of replicas, ways of coping, role (individual indicators); time of collecting the puzzle, the emotional background, the implementation of successful initiatives, satisfaction of participants with the game (group indicators). The possibilities of debriefing to analyze the experience of problem solving are described.
Conclusions. Asimulation puzzle game allows you to study the processes of individual and group copying. Using the game model, conditions are created in which the experience of interaction with difficult life situations is reproduced.
Relevance. The proliferation of various destructions in the interaction between students (bulling, cyber bulling) demands to increase of their social and psychological adaptability. So, it is important to create a psychodiagnostic toolkit for identification of students at risk for exposure to violence for further psychological preventive work.
Objective. To develop a technique for assessing the individualized risks of the socio-cultural safety of the adolescent educational environment.
Methods. The theoretical development and psychometric verification of the author's technique “Adolescence Socio-Cultural Safety Index”. The study involved 3375 students (53% of girls, 47% of boys, 13-16 years old) from municipal schools of the Republic of Tatarstan.
Results. A priori and a posteriori models of the questionnaire were reconciled using structural equation modeling. The proposed model corresponds to the initial data on the main indicators of the consent indices (CMIN=4,272; df=1; p=0.39; GFI=0,999; CFI=0,995; RMSEA=0,033; Pclose=0,759). The article describes the psychometric characteristics of the technique: reliability, validity, discriminatory power. Convergent validityof the technique is assessed using the methods: Propensity for deviant behavior (A. Orel), Methods of assessing the collective psychological atmosphere (F. Fiedler), Questionnaire on aggressiveness by Bass-Dark, Test questionnaire of self-organization of activities by E. Mandrikova, Cultural Congruence Questionnaire (L. Bayanova). The statistical limits of norms are revealed. The possibility of using the technique in further research is evaluated.
Conclusion. The technique “Adolescence Socio-Cultural Safety Index” possesses the necessary psychometric characteristics that allow the use of the questionnaire to identify the risks of the student's educational environment.
Relevance. The studies of psychological well-being are of particular relevance considering a rapidly changing world, requiring a rapid adaptation to changes as well as the constant search for ways to account your needs within unstable environment. Psychologists around the world pay a lot of attention to the psychological well-being of different social groups in recent decades. They analyze how social hierarchy provides different possibilities and influence on well-being of people. There for LGBTQA community, who have experience of discrimination in the heteronormative society, is one of most important group for studying today.
Objective. To review the studies on the relationship of psychological well-being, according to the eudemonistic approach, and various socio-psychological characteristics of the LGBTQIA community.
Methods. We overview and analyze the research of psychological well-being and its determinants among non-heteronormative people.
Results. The observed research show non-heteronormative people have a low level of psychological well-being. The following determinants of these results was identified: hidden discrimination, social and interpersonal barriers, stressful situations, internalized homophobia, support for gender norms, avoidance of interpersonal relations, fear of entering into intimate relations. Positive factors of psychological well-being are: social support, sexual satisfaction, openness, acceptance of one’s sexual identity, predominance of positive emotions, optimism. A combination of hedonistic and eudemonic approaches is possible direction for further development of such studies.
Conclusion. Researches of non-heteronormative people’s well-being can reduce discrimination of them in the modern Russia that will contribute to increasing psychological culture in the society.
Relevance. Mindfulness practices are used today in many different fields, including medicine and education. They have shown their effectiveness in reducing depression, anxiety, improving psychological well-being. The introduction of mindfulness practices in the educational system opens up new opportunities for the development of educational, personal, communication skills, contributing to the improvement of self-regulation, formation of compassionate attitude to oneself and other people, the opportunity to learn from their experience and cope with academic and personal problems and conflicts.
Objective. The article presents the cases of application of mindfulness practices in the prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents.
Method. Review of foreign literature.
Results. The article presents modern developments of application of mindfulness practices in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of suicidal and self-injurious behavior in adolescents. The key components of mindfulness practices that can become protective factors in cases of risk of anti-vital behavior are considered. Studies of effectiveness of mindfulness programs in different groups of the adolescent population are presented. The paper also presents the most common practices of mindfulness, which are included in the program of prevention of suicidal behavior or used independently in the framework of primary prevention.
Conclusion. Mindfulness practices have proven themselves at all levels of suicide prevention. However, randomized controlled trials are needed to better understand their effectiveness.
Relevance. In connection with the process of aggravation of religious feelings and the growth of religious consciousness due to changes in cultural patterns in modern Russia, it is important to analyze the features of the religious identity of Chechen students, which is one of the forms of self-consciousness, which is at the origins of the formation of other types of social identity of the individual, which determines the specifics of social behavior.
Objective. To characterize religious identity from the perspective of socio-psychological approach and identify its features in Chechen students.
Methods. Socio-psychological analysis of the concepts of religious identity and Muslim identity; theoretical and empirical analysis of the structure and characteristics of religious identity of Chechen students using the scale of religious orientation of G. Olport and D. Ross, methods of diagnosis of the structure of individual religion And methods of mathematical statistics. Sample. The study was conducted with 60 students of the Chechen state pedagogical University.
Results. The article presents: the definition of religious identity from the perspective of socio-psychological approach, the analysis of the concept of religious Muslim identity. The methods of research of religious identity are designated and the results of diagnostics of the Chechen students are analyzed. It is shown that students are characterized by internal religious orientation, and religion, contributing to the self-identification of young people, performs ideological, epistemological and communicative functions, acting as a model of moral norms of behavior and guidance in values. The results of the study are compared with the data of earlier studies of the religious identity of Chechen students.
Conclusion. Religion is the main value and tool of the identification process of Chechen students, filling its content with religious norms and values, answering important existential questions. Based on religious norms and values, Chechen students motivate their activities in various social spheres.
Available Online: 30.05.2019
Relevance. The development of the students’ general study skills is in most cases based on their ability to work with a scientific text, and it needs special examination.
Objective. The goal is to study the strategies the fourth-year students of different departments use to single out the most important information. It is also necessary to explore the criteria which students use to distinguish between the essential and inessential information while reading an explanatory scientific text.
Methods. We have used the method created by Sidelnikova and Malskaya, which constitutes a specially constructed text of an explanatory type including some essential information (the description and explanation of facts) along with some trap sentences, in their formal structure similar to definitions (sentences containing dates, surnames and the statement of the significance of the problem). 1021 fourth-year students of Moscow State University and Moscow Pedagogical University (from the pedagogical, psychological, philological departments and the department of soil science) have taken part in the examination.
Results. Less than 6 % of the students single out the description of the facts and their explanation while reading an explanatory text, which means that they learn the material and control the efficiency of learning in accordance with metacognitive knowledge based on academic conception of the structure of scientific knowledge? More than 94 % choose both the description of the facts and their explanation and the trap sentences, considering the sentences in the form of definitions, historical facts and the statements of the significance of the problem to be essential information. There have been found some statistically significant differences in the choice of the students of different departments.
Conclusion. The results show that the fourth-year students who have taken part in the study do not have academic conception of the structure of scientific knowledge and effective strategies for its mastering.
Relevance. Eye-tracking study of reading is widely used methodology in modern psychology. But there is a lack of such studies in Russian language. Particularly, there are few eye-tracking studies of reading on early stages of acquisition of this skill.
Objectives. The main aim of our study is to describe process of reading in children 9-10 years old. We compare state of cognitive functions of children and state of their reading skills and try to describe possible strategies for mastering the skill of reading based on indicators of oculomotor activity.
Methods. 56 third graders participated in the study, mean age – 9.62 years old. The reading skills were assessed using the method “Reading regular and irregular words”. We also record eye-movements of the children during reading the corpus of sentences designed for early schoolchildren. Cognitive functions were assessed by neuropsychological assessment adapted for children of 6–9 years old.
Results. We separated the sample into two subgroups with relatively low and high state of reading skill and found differences in the state of cognitive functions and in the oculomotor activity of children in these groups. The children with relatively low reading skill often had weaknesses of executive functions, functions of visual-spatial and auditory information processing. They made more fixations and their fixations were longer than children with high state of the reading skill. A qualitative analysis of the reading of two children with dyslexia and two children with selective development of sub-lexical / lexical routes made it possible to describe the features of reading in children with the weakness of the both strategies or one of them.
Conclusion. The results obtained in the study, on the one hand, show a general interrelation between the features of reading mastering and the state of individual cognitive functions of children, and on the other hand, they indicate that there is no rigid determination of the level of reading development by the state of cognitive functions.
Relevance. In psychosomatics, subjective attributions of the causes of the disease are considered as one of the components of illness representation. In somnology, the disfunctional beliefs about illness reasons are considered as a factor in insomnia perpetuation. Study of the characteristics of subjective perceptions of sleep disorders reasons in good sleepers versus sleep disorders, as well as their relationship to well-being, can help to clarify theoretical knowledge about the functions of reasons’ representations in various illnesses.
Objective. The aim was to compare the subjective reasons of sleep disorders in good sleepers, insomnia, parasomnias and sleep apnea, as well as to reveal the relationship between beliefs about the reasons of sleep disorders and anxiety and depression.
Methods. The clinical group consisted of 77 patients with sleep apnea syndrome, 18 patients with parasomnias, 105 patients with chronic insomnia who filled the Checklists of Sleep Quality, Subjective Reasons of Sleep Disorders, Screening for Sleep Apnea, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. In 46 patients with apnea, 15 patients with parasomnias and 93 patients with insomnia, polysomnography was performed over one night. The control group included 102 people, 67 of them with periodic sleep complaints, and 33 without sleep complaints who filled Checklists of Sleep Quality, Subjective Reasons of Sleep Disorders.
Results. Good sleepers are characterized by a wide range of sleep problems’ attributions. In case of complaints for some sleep problems, the focus on emotional causes was enhanced while in case of chronic disorders, the number of reasons was narrowed to those specific for that sleep disorder. In both apnea and insomnia, subjective belief that sleep is disturbed by unpleasant sensations in the arms and legs was especially stressful for participants and was associated with depression and marginally associated with anxiety. Attribution of sleep disorders to life events was associated with a higher level of anxiety, especially in insomnia.
Conclusions. The data supports the hypothesis that some subjective reasons of sleep disorders are associated with psychological distress, regardless of the subjective and objective quality of sleep.
The relevance of the study is the need to clarify what factors can determine the self-esteems of volitional traits of a person.
Objective. The empirical study of the possible influence of action control mode and action and meaningfulness of life level on person's representation about the development of his volitional traits.
Methods. 943 first-fifth year university students were asked to complete three questionnaires: Self-esteem technique of the volitional traits (V. Ivannikov, E. Aidman), Action control in planning scale (NAKEMP-90) in adaptation of S. Schapkin, Purpose in Life test in adaptation of D. Leontiev.
Results. There was a reliable relationship of the values of action control in planning scale (ACP) and general meaningfulness of life index (MLI) with three volitional traits (strong-willed, confident, bold) and total score of 20 volitional traits (TSVT). The results of 2-way ANOVA showed significant effects of Action Control and Meaningfulness of Life on the value of TSVT. The lowest TSVT values were observed in students with low values of ACP and MLI, and the highest -with high values of these indexes.
Conclusion. The results are discussed in the framework of V.A. Ivannikov’s theoretical ideas about psychological mechanisms of volitional regulation of personality, especially the role of the meaning formation in the process of transferring prompting from motive to purpose. It explains the natural connection of person`s meanings and self-esteems of volitional traits, as well as the contribution of such resource of self-regulation of human activity as action control mode.
Relevance. The musical activity of a professional pianist has been little studied by objective methods. For most musicians, the task of sight-reading causes a difficulty in both academic and professional activities. Understanding the visual-motor mechanisms and cognitive processes involved in the implementation of sight-reading can help musical pedagogical practice. There are few sight-reading studies and most of them were conducted in conditions far from the real ones. This work is interdisciplinary that involved the interests of musical pedagogy, psychology and physiology.
Objective. On the base of the cognitive task of sight-reading music in conditions close to reality to explore the interaction of visual-motor parameters and their relationship with the parameters of the working memory.
Methods. 55 subjects aged 18–25 years (30 pianists and 25 non-pianists) were tested using the OS and N-back method to determine individual parameters of the working memory, as well as to determine the time of a complex visual-motor response. Eye tracking method was utilized for eye movement recording when the pianists sight read sheet of notes.
Results.The visual-motor performance parameters (eye hand span, errors and regressions) differ significantly at sight-reading musical fragments of varying complexity. Compared with the literature data we obtained opposite results for value of the eye hand span depending on the complexity of the musical text. We revealed correlations between the visual-motor parameters and the working memory parameters as well as their dependence on the quality of performance.
Conclusion. Objectively recorded visual-motor parameters complexly interact with each other. The mastery of sight-reading music of professional pianists closely related with individual parameters of the working memory.
Relevance. The article discusses the possibility of a new technique for testing the professional knowledge. This is a technique of "matrix testing" (or semantic scaling). In the introduction, the author introduces a distinctive system of constructs that allows to localize a new technique in the context of a number of traditional (testing method) and non-traditional methods of assessing educational achievements and professional knowledge.
Objective. The author has set the purpose to reveal potential of "semantic scaling" for a quantitative assessment (measurement) of student competence.
Method. The method of semantic scaling was applied by the author to scale sports with the help of special scales-criteria that denote different types of interaction between athletes and motivational regulation of their activities and thus turn the technique into "psychosemantic scaling". The study was conducted on 150 senior students of the faculty of psychology of MSU, who attended a special course of the author on "Psychology of competition".
Results. The main result (the insignificant correlation coefficient between the success of this technique and the total efficiency of students during the course) does not allow to conclude that the main goal is achieved. More interesting were the additional results from the application of this technique, namely: subset of sport species, obtained by cluster analysis, allow us to talk about the "psychological classification" of these species, or at least on the "psychosemantic classification". This classification is much closer to the classical "Olympic classification", but has a number of specific features.
Conclusion. The positive result of the study can be considered a high similarity of the obtained matrices with the reference matrix (ideal model), from which it can be concluded that the technique of "psychosemantic scaling" contributes to the conceptual learning of students-psychologists – their independent work on mastering the system of concepts in this subject area.
Relevance. Knowledge of the laws of emotion dynamics has not only theoretical, but also practical meaning: this knowledge is necessary to provide psychological assistance in solving the problem of maintaining relationships, to develop of emotional intelligence and regulation of emotions, to diagnose disorder of the emotion dynamics that underlies a number of affective disorders (such as depression).
Objective. Consideration of large (in terms of the number of experiments, subjects and factors studied) studies of Verduyn's group at the University of Leuven (Belgium) and Maastricht University (Netherlands). This group studied the duration of subjective experience of emotions of different types.
Methods. Review and analysis of modern Western studies of the duration of emotions and its determinants, their results and methods.
Results. The integration of data on the absolute and relative duration of emotions of certain types, as well as the contribution of such factors as the emotional intensity, the flow pattern, cognitive assessments, emotion regulation strategies, the social sharing, the cognitive processing of information about the emotional event has been done. The possibilities and limitations of the main methods of studying the emotion dynamics are revealed.
Conclusions. It is necessary to continue the research of the emotion dynamics of on the material of other age, professional, cultural groups. Also, a perspective direction is the study of the dynamics of other components (not just a subjective experience) of emotion.
Relevance. The problem of self-esteem contingenciesis currently less studied empirically than the level and the stability of self-esteem. But at the same time self-esteem contingencies is verypromising topic that allows to better understanding the problems of the psychological well-being and personal maturity of the adolescent.
Objective. The study is devoted to the connection of such types of self-esteem contingencies of adolescent as self-esteem based on competence, self-esteem based on teacher approval, self-esteem based on parental approval and compensatory self-esteem with various aspects of adolescent well-being and satisfaction of basic psychological needs by parents.
Methods. 223 adolescents were recruited for the study. Techniques were filled during school lesson. It was used Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale, the multidimensional scale of schoolchildren’s life satisfaction, the scale of basic psychological needs satisfaction in family and an author’s scale for diagnosing self-esteem contingencies.
Results. It was shown that the types of self-esteem contingenciesmake a different contribution to psychological well-being. Self-esteem based on competence contributes to self-satisfaction, self-esteem based on the approval of parents - family satisfaction, and self-esteem based on the approval of teachers - satisfaction by school. Compensatory self-esteem although leads to self-satisfaction, hinders satisfaction with family and school. At the same time, adolescents whose parents satisfy their basic psychological needs are more satisfied and have more authentic types of self-esteemcontingencies.
Conclusions. The self-esteem based on competence and self-esteem based on obtaining approval and support from significant people are more authentic, healthy and contributing to psychological well-being than compensatory one. The findings provide grounds for adolescent’s training aimed at developing psychological competencies that promote self-esteem such skills of constructive thinking, formulation and advocacy of their position, self-evaluation and coping with distress. As well as for counseling with parents and teachers to build relationships based on the provision of autonomy, support and respect for adolescents.
Relevance.The effects of self-organization of subjects and groups in their joint activities are not well understood. The purpose of the work is to analyze and systematize the facts of manifestations of self-organization in the professional activity of people in a limited social space and historical time (in organizations, in a profession, in professional specialization, etc.).
Objectives. 1) A description of the facts of self-organization as a phenomenon of “psychological niches” in the models of the labor activity of subjects in similar and in different areas. 2) Identification of the determinants of the effects of self-organization of human activity.
Method. Analysis and synthesis of diagnostic data by the method of 16 PF R.B. Cattell, more than 700 professionals (drivers, private security guards, heads of departments of large industrial enterprises) obtained in the author’s studies (1994–2017), and more than 400 civil servants in the diagnostic data in 1995 and 2000, by the method of 16 PF.
Results. It is shown that the personal characteristics of the subjects are associated with their professionally important qualities, typical psycho-physiological states, value orientations, and meanings of work. Self-organization in the professional activity of individual subjects and groups as a phenomenon of “psychological niches” is a manifestation: not of a single, but of a particular and typical; the multi-level relationship of social, psychological and biological adaptation mechanisms of interacting people in a dynamic social environment; “Multipolarity” of high activity areas of subjects, time consistency of periods of their interactions; effects that are more evident not in the productivity of people’s work, but in satisfaction with it, etc.
Conclusion. Finding ways to manage the processes of group self-organization of labor subjects, enhancing the positive effects generated by human interactions, and stopping (weakening, correcting) negative ones can contribute to the development of new resources for increasing the productivity of individual and collective labor.
Relevance. The relevance of identifying methodological problems in the study of bilingualism and its impact on individual and social processes is due to the economic, political and socio-psychological characteristics of modern multicultural and multilingual societies. The special significance of the study of bilingualism acquire in the Russian language context. It is characterized by the need to find a balance between raising the status of the Russian language (as the main unifying factor of civil identity) and the development and preservation of the languages of the peoples of Russia (as an important component of the ethnocultural identity of their representatives).
Objective. The work is aimed at the analysis of the main methodological problems that arise during the research of bilingualism, identifying its impact on cognitive processes and the relationship of bilingualism with ethnocultural identity.
Method. From the point of view of the system approach and cultural-historical psychology, a critical analysis of studies of bilingualism, its impact on cognitive processes and the relationship with ethno-cultural identity was carried out.
Results and conclusions. Methodological problems that complicate the study of bilingualism, systematization and generalization of their results, and the application of the results in various spheres of social practice are identified. A number of methodological challenges need to be overcome in the field of studying the impact of bilingualism and multilingualism in order to obtain valid and reliable research results and implement practical, socially significant tasks in the field of preserving the languages of the peoples of Russia along with strengthening the status of the Russian language. The need for interdisciplinary studies of bilingualism and its impact on cognitive processes and ethnocultural identity based on the application of a systematic approach, including in the Russian multilingual context, is shown.
Available Online: 15.03.2019
Relevance. Problems of injuries and dynamics of working capacity in the production are important characteristics in the analysis of work efficiency, as their assessment allows to identify the advantages and disadvantages of work organization and to identify ways to improve them. However, the existing theoretical concepts do not adequately reflect the real working conditions and work tasks of modern types and forms of work. Further research and expansion of existing concepts are required to incorporate the present findings into the practice of improving the work organization and occupational safety.
Objective. The research aim of the discussed stage was to identify key factors among working conditions and work tasks affecting occupational safety of plant employees.
Methods. The design of the study included two directions – 1) analysis of occupational injuries/errors as integral indicators of occupational safety, and 2) comparison of data gathered from previously performed legal audit of working conditions with data of real-time observations of work process. In total, 209 incidents were analyzed on the sample of 2 professional groups of employees - operators of stamping lines and drivers of forklifts.
The maximum frequency of injury incidents in both group happens in the period between 3d and 4th working hours in all three shifts.
The maximum frequency of both injury and errors surprisingly takes place during the first shift (6:00 a.m. - 14:30 p.m.): the ratio of % injuries (from the total) during the first shift to second to third is 56%:22%:3% for operators, 50%:33%:6% for drivers.
The key specificity of the operators’ work activity was allocated: they are constantly carrying out tactile quality control on a production line. This work task is not regarded in normative documents and in normative assessment, but is the key psychological factor of work intensity for this professional group.
Conclusion. The specificity of work tasks and conditions at modern production includes implicit factors that are not fully reflected in the regulative documents, and which require theoretical and methodological understanding by work psychology and ergonomics.
Relevance.The widespread introduction of digitalization and automation and their use in camera work leads to the acceleration of not only the labor process, but also the entire life of the labor subject. The effect of time perception on work was studied. However, the role of the subjective reflection of time intervals in an integrated system of labor activity in the conditions of work with time limits and deficits has not been studied enough.
Objective. Identification of the role and place of subjective assessment of professionally important time intervals in the system of regulation of activity in solving labor problems at different stages of the dynamics of the operator's performance in the production process.
Methods and sampling. Occupational study of labor; procedure for measuring time intervals; complex express methods for diagnosing the functional state of the subject of labor: 1) labor productivity, 2) physiological indicators, 3) subjective assessment of emotional tension (Spielberger — Hanin scale situational anxiety). The study involved female operators of the precision manufacturing “Assembly of Chips” of the electronics industry (21 people).
Results. The structure of the subjective assessment of the perception of professionally important time intervals determines the dynamic processes of time regulation. The temporal regulation of the labor of operators has specificity in different functional states arising at different stages of working capacity.
Conclusion. The time regulation of the main labor operations is central to the functional system of performing activities.
Relevance. To satisfy with the needs of practice work psychology studies the states of reduced productivity such as fatigue, monotony, and satiation. The chronic forms of these states may exert professional deformation in the personality andpsychosomatic diseases. In modern societies work became less difficult physically but the accelerating pace of technological progress means a person needs to learn new technologies, work methods and even new professions permanently. As a result, the problem of chronic fatigue is even more acute than before. Therefore, studies in the development of chronic fatigue, conducted by A.B. Leonova and her disciples 30 years ago, preserve their relevance.
Objective. To study changes in emotional-personal and motivational characteristics of microelectronic industry female workers associated with the formation of chronic fatigue.
Method. Longitudinal study of two groups of subjects with the different levels of chronic fatigue was based on the following inventories: Еysenk Personality Inventory, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, short multifactorial personality inventory Mini-mult (SMOL), Leonova’s acute and chronic exhaustion questionnaire.
Results. It was found that the work of microelectronic industry female workers results in the formation of chronic fatigue. The following personality distortions associated with increase in chronic fatigue were found: reduced self-esteem, the prevalence of failure avoidance motivation, increased anxiety, ineffective ways of compensating anxiety, a conflict way of interacting with people. The further adaptation to professional duties may lead to the weakening of these negative states such as the normalization of anxiety, the reduction of rigidity, the normalization of communication with other people.
Conclusions. Increase in chronic fatigue can lead to the formation of negative personality states with special emotional and motivational features. As an individual adapts to her working conditions, these traits can be compensated.
Relevance. The study of human functional states within the structural-functional approach is an important development in work psychology. As work becomes more intensive and cognitive, the study of mental fatigue becomes more important.
Objective. To validate cognitive tests for the assessment of mental fatigue cognitive effects, and to replicate cognitive effects of fatigue observed within the structural-functional approach.
Methodology. 27 subjects (18 male), engineers in a high-tech engineering firm, and took part in the study conducted over a working day in the morning and in the evening. Mental fatigue was assessed with a questionnaire. The cognitive tests included a test of attention switching, a test for working memory, and the Sternberg’s short-term memory search task.
Results. A reduction in attention switching and memory search efficiency was found. These results in a good concordance with previous results and indicate a reduction in the availability of top-down cognitive control resources. Evidence was found for transition towards sequential self-terminating memory search strategy under mental fatigue. No reduced working memory was found, which may be related to the meta-cognitive regulation of functional states.
Conclusions. Mental fatigue is associated with a reduction in the control of attention and short-term memory, related to the depletion of cognitive control resources. Individual cognitive reactions to fatigue are important. Future developments of the structural-functional approach may include the development of new diagnostics tools, the usage of cognitive modeling, the orientation to the analysis of the individual differences, and the integration of the structural-functional approach with resource approaches to cognition.
Relevance of the research is based on the development of modern technological innovative organizations, dynamic organizational environment and job stressors connected with inaction of human adoptive processes which provoke professional deformations in employees.
Objective. To provide theoretical, methodological and empirical base of professional deformations’ research in innovative sphere professions as the situation of development of destructive or adoptive job performance mechanisms.
Methodology. 927 subjects, innovative sphere professionals, took part in the study. To obtain data were used: Managerial Stress Survey (Leonova, 2006); means to assess the modality specific professional deformations as a base of self-management programs; psychological self-regulation methods.
Results. It was found the job conditions and job content in innovative sphere professions that predicted the risk group of professional deformations’ development. Chronic professional stress manifestations (anxiety, exhaustion, aggressive and depressive behavior tendencies) were found as predictors professional deformations in innovative sphere employees. The mechanisms of modality specific professional deformations were analyzed; the effectiveness of different integrative image based psychological self-regulation methods is connected with adoptive modality specific professional deformations in innovative sphere employees.
Conclusions. The principle of professional deformations’ development in innovative sphere employees is based on cumulative effect of acute job stress and chronic job stress syndrome. Destructive professional deformations and adoptive modality specific professional deformations in employees develop on the influence of job demands in innovative sphere professions.
Relevance. The problem of change in cognitive performance under more complicated activity conditions is of interest to psychologists and scholars in neuro- and informational sciences. Without its solution it’s impossible to model cognitive activity and predict its efficiency in different situations. Tasks that access attention and working memory resources are of particular interest. The level of emotional tension is often considered a factor hampering the task solution. Previously, authors showed that emotional tension leads to change in spatial distribution of attention and in cognitive strategies that provide solutions to more complex tasks.
Objective. To determine how test anxiety influences the mental rotation task performance.
Methods and sampling. Two groups of subjects were asked to solve the mental rotation task either under emotionally neutral conditions or under the conditions when task performance was significant to the subject. The emotional state of subjects was controlled with questionnaires. In addition, the individual level of stress resistance was measured.
Results. We obtained a linear effect of test-stimulus orientation on reaction time (that was Shepard and Metzler’s discovery). In the situation of emotional tension the average solving time slightly increased and the number of correct answers slightly decreased. Any significant change in task solving strategies was related to the level of stress resistance in subjects.
Conclusion. The cognitive strategies are transformed under impact of emotional tension and whether the subject would choose a constructive strategy or a non-constructive one depends on the subject’s stress resistance. Subjects with lower stress resistance have difficulty distributing cognitive resources, rotating figures in the mental space.
Available Online: 15.03.2019
Relevance. The growing interest in assessment, development and maintenance of professional success is actual in the field of organizational psychology. It emphasizes the need to study the role of effective functional state self-regulation as a factor of professional success.
Objective. The objective of this article is the systematization of the results of a number of studies on the analysis of effective functional state self-regulation as a factor of professional success.
Method. The complex diagnostic package was used. It includes surveys and questionnaires for analysis of subjective image of working conditions and personal current functional state, means of functional state self-regulation, the symptoms of chronic negative functional states and professional personal deformation as consequences of functional state self-regulation system failure.
Results. The results revealed that the features of the effective functional state self-regulation system as a factor of professional success are associated with the plastic adaptation repertoire of self-regulation means and techniques of highly successful professionals, applied adequately to the working conditions of increased job intensity of short-term and prolonged type.
Conclusions. The obtained results confirm the key importance of specialists` functional state self-regulation in supporting and providing of professional success. This phenomenon is particularly evident in the tensed working condition.
Relevance. The development of a conceptual apparatus and the choice of methodological tools for describing and diagnosing various functional states of a labor subject are relevant in connection with the need to ensure the psychological well-being of a specialist. Consideration of the FS from the standpoint of the structural-integrative approach (A.B. Leonova), as a complex, multi-level system object, allows using the psychosemantics apparatus to describe an individual value system represented at different levels of consciousness and also determined by the activity context.
Objective. Demonstration of the psychosemantic approach in the diagnosis of functional states on the example of studying the subjective experience of experiencing the current and "my favorite" state.
Methods. Diagnostic techniques: “Scale of States” (A.B. Leonova), “Scale of reactive (situational) anxiety” (C. Spilberger), “Scale of situational depression” (C. Spielberger) and Artemyeva's semantic differential (16 scales). Respondents - 36 students-psychologists.
Results. The differences in the procedures of presentation and analysis of data obtained in two psychosemantic ways are shown. On the descriptions of the current and favorite states was obtained 4-factor space. The current state of the respondents does not correspond, in their opinion, to the beloved. The scales according to which these states differ: “light — heavy”, “active — passive”, “weak — strong”.
Conclusions. In psychosemantics of states, the choice of different schemes for counting and discussing data is dictated by the peculiarities of the tasks decided by the researcher. This can be a search for group characteristics or an analysis of individual differences in the results. Psychosemantics of FS based on the structural and regulatory approach allows not only to evaluate the object under study, but also to receive indirect information about the features of the respondents themselves who carry out the assessment procedure.
Relevance. It is stressed that the structural-integrative approach for human functional states’ analysis, elaborated at the end of 80s on the base of system analysis of work activity, formed the appropriate theoretical frame for evaluation and prediction of workability and reliability alteration. At present, in innovative work environment, this approach is still the adequate base for urgent and challenging issues, both scientific and practical, such as analysis of work activity regulation mechanisms in tensed work situations; evaluation of a state’s self-regulation in work conditions under long-term strain; elaboration of applied programs for the development of adaptation resources.
Objective. The article focuses on the basic issues of the structural-integrative approach, where a state is defined as a special structure of inner means for tasks execution regulation, acquired by a subject under specific work conditions to human functional states’ analysis. The main aim – the estimation of the approach capabilities for human functional states’ investigations in modern organizational and professional environment.
Method. Methods of multilevel assessment of a functional state’s manifestation are analyzed. The possibilities of data integration technologies, used for different functional states identification, are discussed. The different technologies for self-regulation of a state are viewed taking in account their capabilities to develop and improve the individual adaptation potential in work.
Results. The results of the main research based on the structural-integrative approach is overviewed. Special attention is given to the following question: is the structural-integrative approach worth implementation for the evaluation of a human functional state in applied research, when it is not possible to get data about manifestations of a state on all necessary levels - physiological, psychological (including cognitive and subjective sublevels) and behavioral. The example of such research is presented.
Conclusions. The results ofmore than 30 years of the structural-integrative approach implementation proved its efficiency for human functional states’ evaluation in dynamic work environment. The possibilities of the approach for functional states’ analysis under work conditions of high autonomy and self-determination in work tasks planning and execution are defined.
Interview with Leonova Anna Borisovna by Noskova Olga Gennadievna is available only in russian.
Relevance. Due to centennial anniversary of soviet psychology, we would like to make analysis for the history of its institutional and subject formation within the context of Russian human study evolution, including its prerequisites before revolution and after-soviet development.
Objective. Characterize briefly, within the context of reflexive science studies and art process personology, psychology development directions and institutions, role of key scholars, summarize major achievements, including unique identity of soviet psychological science.
Methods. Analysis for subject and institutional aspects of Russian psychology evolution, describing institutions where major schools were residing and where key leaders and participants fulfilled their duties.
Results. First part contains and depicts science studies and institutional approach on presenting the historical span of Russian psychology. Second part depicts evolution of institutions, leaders’ succession and interaction of schools and directions established. Final part contains generalized conclusions on development logics and achievements of soviet psychology as preconditions to further after-soviet establishment of contemporary (Russian) psychology.
Conclusions. Soviet psychology based human studies existing before revolution legitimately succeeds the preceding evolution phase and provides evident basis for further development of psychological science during after-soviet period. Soviet scholars have developed ample materialist-dialectic methodology for study of psyche, which is the system of psychological knowledge from perspective of activity approach that had quite peculiar impetus on contemporary psychology. Currently legacy of soviet psychology interacts broadly and assimilates with foreign up-to-date approaches within the context of XXI century challenges.
Article, written to the 100th anniversary of Zoya Alexeevna Reshetova