Relevance. The article discusses the possibility of a new technique for testing the professional knowledge. This is a technique of "matrix testing" (or semantic scaling). In the introduction, the author introduces a distinctive system of constructs that allows to localize a new technique in the context of a number of traditional (testing method) and non-traditional methods of assessing educational achievements and professional knowledge.
Objective. The author has set the purpose to reveal potential of "semantic scaling" for a quantitative assessment (measurement) of student competence.
Method. The method of semantic scaling was applied by the author to scale sports with the help of special scales-criteria that denote different types of interaction between athletes and motivational regulation of their activities and thus turn the technique into "psychosemantic scaling". The study was conducted on 150 senior students of the faculty of psychology of MSU, who attended a special course of the author on "Psychology of competition".
Results. The main result (the insignificant correlation coefficient between the success of this technique and the total efficiency of students during the course) does not allow to conclude that the main goal is achieved. More interesting were the additional results from the application of this technique, namely: subset of sport species, obtained by cluster analysis, allow us to talk about the "psychological classification" of these species, or at least on the "psychosemantic classification". This classification is much closer to the classical "Olympic classification", but has a number of specific features.
Conclusion. The positive result of the study can be considered a high similarity of the obtained matrices with the reference matrix (ideal model), from which it can be concluded that the technique of "psychosemantic scaling" contributes to the conceptual learning of students-psychologists – their independent work on mastering the system of concepts in this subject area.
Relevance. Knowledge of the laws of emotion dynamics has not only theoretical, but also practical meaning: this knowledge is necessary to provide psychological assistance in solving the problem of maintaining relationships, to develop of emotional intelligence and regulation of emotions, to diagnose disorder of the emotion dynamics that underlies a number of affective disorders (such as depression).
Objective. Consideration of large (in terms of the number of experiments, subjects and factors studied) studies of Verduyn's group at the University of Leuven (Belgium) and Maastricht University (Netherlands). This group studied the duration of subjective experience of emotions of different types.
Methods. Review and analysis of modern Western studies of the duration of emotions and its determinants, their results and methods.
Results. The integration of data on the absolute and relative duration of emotions of certain types, as well as the contribution of such factors as the emotional intensity, the flow pattern, cognitive assessments, emotion regulation strategies, the social sharing, the cognitive processing of information about the emotional event has been done. The possibilities and limitations of the main methods of studying the emotion dynamics are revealed.
Conclusions. It is necessary to continue the research of the emotion dynamics of on the material of other age, professional, cultural groups. Also, a perspective direction is the study of the dynamics of other components (not just a subjective experience) of emotion.
Relevance. The problem of self-esteem contingenciesis currently less studied empirically than the level and the stability of self-esteem. But at the same time self-esteem contingencies is verypromising topic that allows to better understanding the problems of the psychological well-being and personal maturity of the adolescent.
Objective. The study is devoted to the connection of such types of self-esteem contingencies of adolescent as self-esteem based on competence, self-esteem based on teacher approval, self-esteem based on parental approval and compensatory self-esteem with various aspects of adolescent well-being and satisfaction of basic psychological needs by parents.
Methods. 223 adolescents were recruited for the study. Techniques were filled during school lesson. It was used Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale, the multidimensional scale of schoolchildren’s life satisfaction, the scale of basic psychological needs satisfaction in family and an author’s scale for diagnosing self-esteem contingencies.
Results. It was shown that the types of self-esteem contingenciesmake a different contribution to psychological well-being. Self-esteem based on competence contributes to self-satisfaction, self-esteem based on the approval of parents - family satisfaction, and self-esteem based on the approval of teachers - satisfaction by school. Compensatory self-esteem although leads to self-satisfaction, hinders satisfaction with family and school. At the same time, adolescents whose parents satisfy their basic psychological needs are more satisfied and have more authentic types of self-esteemcontingencies.
Conclusions. The self-esteem based on competence and self-esteem based on obtaining approval and support from significant people are more authentic, healthy and contributing to psychological well-being than compensatory one. The findings provide grounds for adolescent’s training aimed at developing psychological competencies that promote self-esteem such skills of constructive thinking, formulation and advocacy of their position, self-evaluation and coping with distress. As well as for counseling with parents and teachers to build relationships based on the provision of autonomy, support and respect for adolescents.
Relevance.The effects of self-organization of subjects and groups in their joint activities are not well understood. The purpose of the work is to analyze and systematize the facts of manifestations of self-organization in the professional activity of people in a limited social space and historical time (in organizations, in a profession, in professional specialization, etc.).
Objectives. 1) A description of the facts of self-organization as a phenomenon of “psychological niches” in the models of the labor activity of subjects in similar and in different areas. 2) Identification of the determinants of the effects of self-organization of human activity.
Method. Analysis and synthesis of diagnostic data by the method of 16 PF R.B. Cattell, more than 700 professionals (drivers, private security guards, heads of departments of large industrial enterprises) obtained in the author’s studies (1994–2017), and more than 400 civil servants in the diagnostic data in 1995 and 2000, by the method of 16 PF.
Results. It is shown that the personal characteristics of the subjects are associated with their professionally important qualities, typical psycho-physiological states, value orientations, and meanings of work. Self-organization in the professional activity of individual subjects and groups as a phenomenon of “psychological niches” is a manifestation: not of a single, but of a particular and typical; the multi-level relationship of social, psychological and biological adaptation mechanisms of interacting people in a dynamic social environment; “Multipolarity” of high activity areas of subjects, time consistency of periods of their interactions; effects that are more evident not in the productivity of people’s work, but in satisfaction with it, etc.
Conclusion. Finding ways to manage the processes of group self-organization of labor subjects, enhancing the positive effects generated by human interactions, and stopping (weakening, correcting) negative ones can contribute to the development of new resources for increasing the productivity of individual and collective labor.
Relevance. The relevance of identifying methodological problems in the study of bilingualism and its impact on individual and social processes is due to the economic, political and socio-psychological characteristics of modern multicultural and multilingual societies. The special significance of the study of bilingualism acquire in the Russian language context. It is characterized by the need to find a balance between raising the status of the Russian language (as the main unifying factor of civil identity) and the development and preservation of the languages of the peoples of Russia (as an important component of the ethnocultural identity of their representatives).
Objective. The work is aimed at the analysis of the main methodological problems that arise during the research of bilingualism, identifying its impact on cognitive processes and the relationship of bilingualism with ethnocultural identity.
Method. From the point of view of the system approach and cultural-historical psychology, a critical analysis of studies of bilingualism, its impact on cognitive processes and the relationship with ethno-cultural identity was carried out.
Results and conclusions. Methodological problems that complicate the study of bilingualism, systematization and generalization of their results, and the application of the results in various spheres of social practice are identified. A number of methodological challenges need to be overcome in the field of studying the impact of bilingualism and multilingualism in order to obtain valid and reliable research results and implement practical, socially significant tasks in the field of preserving the languages of the peoples of Russia along with strengthening the status of the Russian language. The need for interdisciplinary studies of bilingualism and its impact on cognitive processes and ethnocultural identity based on the application of a systematic approach, including in the Russian multilingual context, is shown.
Available Online: 15.03.2019
Relevance. Problems of injuries and dynamics of working capacity in the production are important characteristics in the analysis of work efficiency, as their assessment allows to identify the advantages and disadvantages of work organization and to identify ways to improve them. However, the existing theoretical concepts do not adequately reflect the real working conditions and work tasks of modern types and forms of work. Further research and expansion of existing concepts are required to incorporate the present findings into the practice of improving the work organization and occupational safety.
Objective. The research aim of the discussed stage was to identify key factors among working conditions and work tasks affecting occupational safety of plant employees.
Methods. The design of the study included two directions – 1) analysis of occupational injuries/errors as integral indicators of occupational safety, and 2) comparison of data gathered from previously performed legal audit of working conditions with data of real-time observations of work process. In total, 209 incidents were analyzed on the sample of 2 professional groups of employees - operators of stamping lines and drivers of forklifts.
The maximum frequency of injury incidents in both group happens in the period between 3d and 4th working hours in all three shifts.
The maximum frequency of both injury and errors surprisingly takes place during the first shift (6:00 a.m. - 14:30 p.m.): the ratio of % injuries (from the total) during the first shift to second to third is 56%:22%:3% for operators, 50%:33%:6% for drivers.
The key specificity of the operators’ work activity was allocated: they are constantly carrying out tactile quality control on a production line. This work task is not regarded in normative documents and in normative assessment, but is the key psychological factor of work intensity for this professional group.
Conclusion. The specificity of work tasks and conditions at modern production includes implicit factors that are not fully reflected in the regulative documents, and which require theoretical and methodological understanding by work psychology and ergonomics.
Relevance.The widespread introduction of digitalization and automation and their use in camera work leads to the acceleration of not only the labor process, but also the entire life of the labor subject. The effect of time perception on work was studied. However, the role of the subjective reflection of time intervals in an integrated system of labor activity in the conditions of work with time limits and deficits has not been studied enough.
Objective. Identification of the role and place of subjective assessment of professionally important time intervals in the system of regulation of activity in solving labor problems at different stages of the dynamics of the operator's performance in the production process.
Methods and sampling. Occupational study of labor; procedure for measuring time intervals; complex express methods for diagnosing the functional state of the subject of labor: 1) labor productivity, 2) physiological indicators, 3) subjective assessment of emotional tension (Spielberger — Hanin scale situational anxiety). The study involved female operators of the precision manufacturing “Assembly of Chips” of the electronics industry (21 people).
Results. The structure of the subjective assessment of the perception of professionally important time intervals determines the dynamic processes of time regulation. The temporal regulation of the labor of operators has specificity in different functional states arising at different stages of working capacity.
Conclusion. The time regulation of the main labor operations is central to the functional system of performing activities.
Relevance. To satisfy with the needs of practice work psychology studies the states of reduced productivity such as fatigue, monotony, and satiation. The chronic forms of these states may exert professional deformation in the personality andpsychosomatic diseases. In modern societies work became less difficult physically but the accelerating pace of technological progress means a person needs to learn new technologies, work methods and even new professions permanently. As a result, the problem of chronic fatigue is even more acute than before. Therefore, studies in the development of chronic fatigue, conducted by A.B. Leonova and her disciples 30 years ago, preserve their relevance.
Objective. To study changes in emotional-personal and motivational characteristics of microelectronic industry female workers associated with the formation of chronic fatigue.
Method. Longitudinal study of two groups of subjects with the different levels of chronic fatigue was based on the following inventories: Еysenk Personality Inventory, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, short multifactorial personality inventory Mini-mult (SMOL), Leonova’s acute and chronic exhaustion questionnaire.
Results. It was found that the work of microelectronic industry female workers results in the formation of chronic fatigue. The following personality distortions associated with increase in chronic fatigue were found: reduced self-esteem, the prevalence of failure avoidance motivation, increased anxiety, ineffective ways of compensating anxiety, a conflict way of interacting with people. The further adaptation to professional duties may lead to the weakening of these negative states such as the normalization of anxiety, the reduction of rigidity, the normalization of communication with other people.
Conclusions. Increase in chronic fatigue can lead to the formation of negative personality states with special emotional and motivational features. As an individual adapts to her working conditions, these traits can be compensated.
Relevance. The study of human functional states within the structural-functional approach is an important development in work psychology. As work becomes more intensive and cognitive, the study of mental fatigue becomes more important.
Objective. To validate cognitive tests for the assessment of mental fatigue cognitive effects, and to replicate cognitive effects of fatigue observed within the structural-functional approach.
Methodology. 27 subjects (18 male), engineers in a high-tech engineering firm, and took part in the study conducted over a working day in the morning and in the evening. Mental fatigue was assessed with a questionnaire. The cognitive tests included a test of attention switching, a test for working memory, and the Sternberg’s short-term memory search task.
Results. A reduction in attention switching and memory search efficiency was found. These results in a good concordance with previous results and indicate a reduction in the availability of top-down cognitive control resources. Evidence was found for transition towards sequential self-terminating memory search strategy under mental fatigue. No reduced working memory was found, which may be related to the meta-cognitive regulation of functional states.
Conclusions. Mental fatigue is associated with a reduction in the control of attention and short-term memory, related to the depletion of cognitive control resources. Individual cognitive reactions to fatigue are important. Future developments of the structural-functional approach may include the development of new diagnostics tools, the usage of cognitive modeling, the orientation to the analysis of the individual differences, and the integration of the structural-functional approach with resource approaches to cognition.
Relevance of the research is based on the development of modern technological innovative organizations, dynamic organizational environment and job stressors connected with inaction of human adoptive processes which provoke professional deformations in employees.
Objective. To provide theoretical, methodological and empirical base of professional deformations’ research in innovative sphere professions as the situation of development of destructive or adoptive job performance mechanisms.
Methodology. 927 subjects, innovative sphere professionals, took part in the study. To obtain data were used: Managerial Stress Survey (Leonova, 2006); means to assess the modality specific professional deformations as a base of self-management programs; psychological self-regulation methods.
Results. It was found the job conditions and job content in innovative sphere professions that predicted the risk group of professional deformations’ development. Chronic professional stress manifestations (anxiety, exhaustion, aggressive and depressive behavior tendencies) were found as predictors professional deformations in innovative sphere employees. The mechanisms of modality specific professional deformations were analyzed; the effectiveness of different integrative image based psychological self-regulation methods is connected with adoptive modality specific professional deformations in innovative sphere employees.
Conclusions. The principle of professional deformations’ development in innovative sphere employees is based on cumulative effect of acute job stress and chronic job stress syndrome. Destructive professional deformations and adoptive modality specific professional deformations in employees develop on the influence of job demands in innovative sphere professions.
Relevance. The problem of change in cognitive performance under more complicated activity conditions is of interest to psychologists and scholars in neuro- and informational sciences. Without its solution it’s impossible to model cognitive activity and predict its efficiency in different situations. Tasks that access attention and working memory resources are of particular interest. The level of emotional tension is often considered a factor hampering the task solution. Previously, authors showed that emotional tension leads to change in spatial distribution of attention and in cognitive strategies that provide solutions to more complex tasks.
Objective. To determine how test anxiety influences the mental rotation task performance.
Methods and sampling. Two groups of subjects were asked to solve the mental rotation task either under emotionally neutral conditions or under the conditions when task performance was significant to the subject. The emotional state of subjects was controlled with questionnaires. In addition, the individual level of stress resistance was measured.
Results. We obtained a linear effect of test-stimulus orientation on reaction time (that was Shepard and Metzler’s discovery). In the situation of emotional tension the average solving time slightly increased and the number of correct answers slightly decreased. Any significant change in task solving strategies was related to the level of stress resistance in subjects.
Conclusion. The cognitive strategies are transformed under impact of emotional tension and whether the subject would choose a constructive strategy or a non-constructive one depends on the subject’s stress resistance. Subjects with lower stress resistance have difficulty distributing cognitive resources, rotating figures in the mental space.
Available Online: 15.03.2019
Relevance. The growing interest in assessment, development and maintenance of professional success is actual in the field of organizational psychology. It emphasizes the need to study the role of effective functional state self-regulation as a factor of professional success.
Objective. The objective of this article is the systematization of the results of a number of studies on the analysis of effective functional state self-regulation as a factor of professional success.
Method. The complex diagnostic package was used. It includes surveys and questionnaires for analysis of subjective image of working conditions and personal current functional state, means of functional state self-regulation, the symptoms of chronic negative functional states and professional personal deformation as consequences of functional state self-regulation system failure.
Results. The results revealed that the features of the effective functional state self-regulation system as a factor of professional success are associated with the plastic adaptation repertoire of self-regulation means and techniques of highly successful professionals, applied adequately to the working conditions of increased job intensity of short-term and prolonged type.
Conclusions. The obtained results confirm the key importance of specialists` functional state self-regulation in supporting and providing of professional success. This phenomenon is particularly evident in the tensed working condition.
Relevance. The development of a conceptual apparatus and the choice of methodological tools for describing and diagnosing various functional states of a labor subject are relevant in connection with the need to ensure the psychological well-being of a specialist. Consideration of the FS from the standpoint of the structural-integrative approach (A.B. Leonova), as a complex, multi-level system object, allows using the psychosemantics apparatus to describe an individual value system represented at different levels of consciousness and also determined by the activity context.
Objective. Demonstration of the psychosemantic approach in the diagnosis of functional states on the example of studying the subjective experience of experiencing the current and "my favorite" state.
Methods. Diagnostic techniques: “Scale of States” (A.B. Leonova), “Scale of reactive (situational) anxiety” (C. Spilberger), “Scale of situational depression” (C. Spielberger) and Artemyeva's semantic differential (16 scales). Respondents - 36 students-psychologists.
Results. The differences in the procedures of presentation and analysis of data obtained in two psychosemantic ways are shown. On the descriptions of the current and favorite states was obtained 4-factor space. The current state of the respondents does not correspond, in their opinion, to the beloved. The scales according to which these states differ: “light — heavy”, “active — passive”, “weak — strong”.
Conclusions. In psychosemantics of states, the choice of different schemes for counting and discussing data is dictated by the peculiarities of the tasks decided by the researcher. This can be a search for group characteristics or an analysis of individual differences in the results. Psychosemantics of FS based on the structural and regulatory approach allows not only to evaluate the object under study, but also to receive indirect information about the features of the respondents themselves who carry out the assessment procedure.
Relevance. It is stressed that the structural-integrative approach for human functional states’ analysis, elaborated at the end of 80s on the base of system analysis of work activity, formed the appropriate theoretical frame for evaluation and prediction of workability and reliability alteration. At present, in innovative work environment, this approach is still the adequate base for urgent and challenging issues, both scientific and practical, such as analysis of work activity regulation mechanisms in tensed work situations; evaluation of a state’s self-regulation in work conditions under long-term strain; elaboration of applied programs for the development of adaptation resources.
Objective. The article focuses on the basic issues of the structural-integrative approach, where a state is defined as a special structure of inner means for tasks execution regulation, acquired by a subject under specific work conditions to human functional states’ analysis. The main aim – the estimation of the approach capabilities for human functional states’ investigations in modern organizational and professional environment.
Method. Methods of multilevel assessment of a functional state’s manifestation are analyzed. The possibilities of data integration technologies, used for different functional states identification, are discussed. The different technologies for self-regulation of a state are viewed taking in account their capabilities to develop and improve the individual adaptation potential in work.
Results. The results of the main research based on the structural-integrative approach is overviewed. Special attention is given to the following question: is the structural-integrative approach worth implementation for the evaluation of a human functional state in applied research, when it is not possible to get data about manifestations of a state on all necessary levels - physiological, psychological (including cognitive and subjective sublevels) and behavioral. The example of such research is presented.
Conclusions. The results ofmore than 30 years of the structural-integrative approach implementation proved its efficiency for human functional states’ evaluation in dynamic work environment. The possibilities of the approach for functional states’ analysis under work conditions of high autonomy and self-determination in work tasks planning and execution are defined.
Interview with Leonova Anna Borisovna by Noskova Olga Gennadievna is available only in russian.
Relevance. Due to centennial anniversary of soviet psychology, we would like to make analysis for the history of its institutional and subject formation within the context of Russian human study evolution, including its prerequisites before revolution and after-soviet development.
Objective. Characterize briefly, within the context of reflexive science studies and art process personology, psychology development directions and institutions, role of key scholars, summarize major achievements, including unique identity of soviet psychological science.
Methods. Analysis for subject and institutional aspects of Russian psychology evolution, describing institutions where major schools were residing and where key leaders and participants fulfilled their duties.
Results. First part contains and depicts science studies and institutional approach on presenting the historical span of Russian psychology. Second part depicts evolution of institutions, leaders’ succession and interaction of schools and directions established. Final part contains generalized conclusions on development logics and achievements of soviet psychology as preconditions to further after-soviet establishment of contemporary (Russian) psychology.
Conclusions. Soviet psychology based human studies existing before revolution legitimately succeeds the preceding evolution phase and provides evident basis for further development of psychological science during after-soviet period. Soviet scholars have developed ample materialist-dialectic methodology for study of psyche, which is the system of psychological knowledge from perspective of activity approach that had quite peculiar impetus on contemporary psychology. Currently legacy of soviet psychology interacts broadly and assimilates with foreign up-to-date approaches within the context of XXI century challenges.
Article, written to the 100th anniversary of Zoya Alexeevna Reshetova
Relevance.The effectiveness of the method of the gradual formation of intellectual actions, which was developed by P.Y. Galperin and his followers, has been repeatedly proved in research. However, several questions remain open, and their solution is very likely to facilitate an active implementation of the ideas of this scientific school in pedagogical practice at large. Among such questions is the issue of the mechanisms of ‘teaching the actions with specified properties’.
Objective. 1) to analyse the results of the forming experiments in order to reveal the occurrences of change during the acquisition of the original structural organization of an action, 2) to provide a detailed rationale for the necessity to examine the role of the activity organization component in teaching intellectual actions with specified properties.
Method. The analysis on the proposition of the system approach that the object’s observed property is to be viewed as a result of the interactionamong the system elements.
Results. Three types of organizational changes have been observed in the course of acquisition by the student: 1) the restructuring of the action; 2) the restructuring of the relations in the set of interrelated actions; 3) the change of the original co-organization of the acting subjects.The hypotheses are made:1) about the existence of a functional link among the types of the action organization changes that have been identified; 2) about the existence of a prototypical organizational form that predetermines the way in which an acquirable intellectual action is structured.
Conclusion. The examination of the new research hypotheses will contribute to further understanding of the formation of the actions with specified properties.
Relevance.Knowledge of the laws of emotion dynamics has not only theoretical, but also practical meaning: this knowledge is necessary to provide psychological assistance in solving the problem of maintaining relationships, to develop of emotional intelligence and regulation of emotions, to diagnose disorder of the emotion dynamics that underlies a number of affective disorders (such as depression).
Objective.Consideration of large (in terms of the number of experiments, subjects and factors studied) studies of Verduyn's group at the University of Leuven (Belgium) and Maastricht University (Netherlands). This group studied the duration of subjective experience of emotions of different types.
Methods. Review and analysis of modern Western studies of the duration of emotions and its determinants, their results and methods.
Results.The integration of data on the absolute and relative duration of emotions of certain types, as well as the contribution of such factors as the emotional intensity, the flow pattern, cognitive assessments, emotion regulation strategies, the social sharing, the cognitive processing of information about the emotional event has been done. The possibilities and limitations of the main methods of studying the emotion dynamics are revealed.
Conclusions. It is necessary to continue the research of the emotion dynamics of on the material of other age, professional, cultural groups. Also, a perspective direction is the study of the dynamics of other components (not just a subjective experience) of emotion.
Relevance.The altered states of consciousness (ASC) phenomena are widespread and have functional significance in the cultural and religious practices. The recognition of the fact that these states exists have become itself the basis of criticism of the «dogmatic» Marxist psychology. The lack of cultural-activity approach in the study of mystical and religious altered states hinders the theoretical equipment of practical work with subjects of these ASC and the making of conditions of interfaith dialogue of full value.
Objective.To examine the methodological potential of cultural-activity approach in the study of altered states of consciousness (including mystical/religious ASC’s) and to consider the methodical means in the solution of corresponding research tasks.
Methods.The methodological analysis of the problem of ASC in religious practices from the cultural-activity approach positions.
Conclusions.The comprehension of culturally predetermined ASC as functional organs of activity derives from Soviet tradition of dynamic systemic formations research and contributes to the notions of structure, function and development of ASC. An application of structural schemas of activity and consciousness to reveal the constitution of means, induction methods and psychological mechanisms of the ASC is justified. Author considers the capabilities of using pattern of psychical processes, action and more fractional units in the ASC analysis. The significance of productive criteria for ASC presence is pointed out, and the capabilities of religious ASC research methods are discussed in appliance with the principles of modern type of scientific rationality. Author analyses specific methods allowing to reconstruct the ASC phenomena in religious practices, their requirements and restrictions. Explanatory possibilities of cultural-activity approach allow to give a holistic and consistent interpretation to the psychical phenomena of the alteration of the state of consciousness.
By: Solenov, Igor V.;
Available Online: 01.12.2018
Relevance. It is one of very important tasks of modern neuroscience to investigate the psychological and psychophysiological mechanisms of body orientation processes. Particularly due to the growth in use of visualization and simulation technologies (virtual reality, projection displays, aircraft simulators). The application of such systems is often associated with mismatch between different sensory signals. One of the phenomena resulting from this mismatch is the self-motion illusion – the perception of own movement by a motionless person observing a moving visual stimulus occupying a large part of field of view.
Objective. Investigation the role of optokinetic nystagmus in self-motion illusion. The virtual optokinetic drum rotating at 30, 45 and 60 deg/s was used as a stimulus. The drum was presented using CAVE virtual reality system. 17 healthy participants took part in the experiment. The slow phases of nystagmus during self-motion illusion perception were analyzed.
Results. The more the drum rotation speed, the more the illusion intensity and slow phases duration. Also the disturbances in slow phase realization led to increase the illusion intensity. The restoration of nystagmus reduced the illusion. Thus it was found that optokinetic nystagmus is a component of a human space orientation system and the nystagmus also adjusts the illusion perception. The effectiveness of application of CAVE virtual reality system in complicated cognitive processes investigation was proved.
Relevance. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is widely employed in studies focused on possibility of substitution of human verbal and motor communication channels when such channels are lost due to stroke or trauma. One of the most promising examples of BCI technology is P300 BCI – a system based on P300 component of visual evoked potential. Visual stimulation plays a key role in P300 BCI concept, and it is thus important to explore the influence of visual stimuli environment on user’s eye movements and BCI performance.
Objective. The objective was to explore the influence of the main components of P300 BCI visual environment, namely matrix stimuli size and spacing, on the movements of user's eyes during typing, the accuracy of typing, and the amplitude and latency of P300 component.
Methods. Sixteen healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Each subject participated in five experimental sessions, where P300 BCI matrix stimuli size and spacing varied from 1.22 and 0.73 to 2.43 and 1.45 degrees of visual angle. During each experimental session, subjects were typing in a certain text sequence using the BCI while their eye movements and EEG were being recorded.
Results. We found that the stimuli size significantly affected certain characteristics of user’s eye movements. The stimuli size and spacing, however, had no significant effect on the accuracy of the typing and the amplitude and latency of P300 component.
Conclusions. The results of the study can prove to be beneficial to the development of efficient visual stimuli environments for P300 BCI.
Relevance. The quality of motivation characterizes the nature of urges. It is manifested in how much the motivation of a particular activity is connected with its process (intrinsic motivation) or with an alienated result (extrinsic motivation), or with intermediate types between them (E. Deci, R. Ryan). In the present study we examine how the quality of motivation of students' learning activity is associated with the experiences of pleasure, meaning, effort and void as their absence (in light of D. Leontiev’s three-dimensional model of activity-related experiences).
Objective. We aim to reveal relationships between the quality of motivation of learning activity and experiences related to this activity.
Methods.We used Activity-related Experiences Assessment inventory (AREA) to measure experiences in leisure and study, and Universal Perceived Locus of Causality Scale (UPLOC) to assess the quality of motivation. The correlation study was conducted on students sample of 17-24 years (M=18.35; SD=1.00).(N = 357).
Results. The connection of the pleasure experience in learning activity with its motivation increases monotonously when moving from controlled (external) to autonomous types of motivation, changing the minus sign to a plus; the void experience demonstrates reverse pattern. The meaning experience in general reveals similar dynamics to pleasure, but with some differences. The effort experience is insignificantly related to the most autonomous and least autonomous types of motivation, showing a significant positive relationship with the intermediate types of motivation in the middle of the autonomy continuum.
Conclusion. Significant correlations were observed between different types of motivation and experiences related to the same activity and nonsignificant and/or weak correlations between types of motivation and experiences related to different activities.
Relevance. The growing interest to studying foreign students and the creation of a favorable educational environment for them makes urgent to study the strategies of sociocultural adaptation of representatives of different cultures.
Objective. Identification of the coping strategies features and differences in the scales of sociocultural adaptation among foreign students, depending on their belonging to culture.
Methodology. Two questionnaires were used: the "Revised Sociocultural Adaptation Scale (SCAS-R)" (J. Wilson) and "Strategic Approach to Coping Scale - SACS" (Vodopyanova and E.S. Starchenkova). The study involved students from the CIS countries (Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, n = 65) and from China (n = 39), studying in Russian universities.
Results. Representatives of the CIS countries revealed dominance of the indirect and passive (cautious model of behavior) coping strategies. Prosocial coping strategy (seeking social support and entering into social contact) dominates among students from China. Also differences between groups on academic adaptation and the level of knowledge of the Russian language were found.
Conclusions. Representatives of the highly contextual and reactive culture (Chinese students) mostly difficult adapt to the specifics of education, the requirements of higher education and communication in the native language of the host country. The same type of culture underlies the formation of a prosocial coping strategy. Representatives of polyactive and polychronic culture (students from the CIS countries) are dominated by indirect and passive coping strategies.
Relevance. 90thXX century is a very dramatic period of modern Russian history. During this period, dramatic changes have been in different spheres (economic, political, international etc.) in Russia, also values and social norms have changed dramatically. Memory lane and representations of this period influence on their representation of modern times. Therefore, it is very important to investigate historical memory of this period.
Objective. The goal of the study is to investigate psychological aspects of 90th’XX century in Russia historical memory and to compare contemporaries’ associations with youth’s associations with the epoch of 90th.
Method. Questionnaire “Representations of 90thXX century in Russia” (E. Sinelnikova)
Sample. 154 participants, 60 participants at the main stage of the study: 29 participants youthful age (mean age – 19 years), 31 adulthood, contemporaries of 90th(mean age – 52,1 year).
Results. The most frequent associations with 90thare financial crisis (devastation), deficit, deliberation, corruption, and perestroika (transformation in different spheres of society. Young participants associated the 90thwith corruption statistically significant more often than contemporaries of 90th. 90th’contemporaries associated 90thwith perestroika statistically significant more often than students. The most important sources of information about 90thare: experience (for contemporaries), TV, films, newspapers and journals. Internet is an important source of information about 90thonly for the young people.
Conclusion. 90thXX century in Russia in young people’s representations are more associated with crime and riots. In contrast, in contemporaries’ associations the epoch is more associated with transformations in different spheres of society and economic problems.
Relevance. The problem of finding the meaning of human existence is relevant at all times and in all Nations. The study of this problem has a pronounced interdisciplinary character. In the presented work interests of psychology of art, semiotics of cinema, psychology of religion, ethics intersect, and for processing of the received data the modern mathematical apparatus of multidimensional statistics is used.
Objective. Based on the perception of the film on the Buddhist theme to explore the depth of its understanding by a group of young Russians: to highlight the system of personal constructs (Kelly) perception of the film; to determine the cognitive complexity of the group consciousness of respondents-viewers; to analyze personal meanings that have arisen in different viewers with a particular understanding of the film.
Methods. We used methods of psychosemantic research using the method of triadic choice J. Kelly and the subsequent scaling of characters of the movie and the added roles on the personal designs made by respondents. The respondents, 38 graduate students, undergraduates and students of different faculties of Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Results. Application of the method of triadic choice G. Kelly made it possible to reveal a system of personal constructs and on their basis to build a semantic space, set by the basic categories-factors, through the prism of which the perception and awareness of the film. Received 8 interpretable factors, showing the elements of the fabric of the film and made the focus of understanding of the respondents: "Youth, inexperience — Wisdom, maturity", "Selfishness — Humanity", "Focus on the sacredness — Focus on secular life and society," "Passivity, inertia — Active life position", "Rationality — Following the passion", "Openness to experience — Conformism", "Afflicted, miserable — Enjoying life", "Masculinity — Femininity".
Conclusions. Viewers of a feature film realize its meaning in different ways and at different levels. Some are aware of it at the level of the storyline and evaluation of the characters; others are aware of the philosophical, existential meaning of the work and relate it to their spiritual quest. The work of art as a carrier of the meanings inherent in it requires the viewer to actively comprehend, initiates the work of thought, counter spiritual creativity of understanding.
Relevance. There is no understanding of the role of risk perception in medical decision-making, as well as the cognitive representations and implicit theories of risk of doctors. The concept of an intellectual-personal human potential helps us investigate the links between those levels of risk perception and the specifics of decision-making.
Objective. The hypothesis about the relationship between cognitive representations of risk, the preference towards certain choices in verbal tasks, and the engagement of implicit risk theories in the regulation of choices was tested.
Methods. 103 people aged 21-73 years participated, 59 doctors, and 44 realtors. Medical Risk Scale (SHMR, MRS), Cognitive Risk Representations Inventory (CRR) and Implicit Risk Theories Questionnaire (ITR) were applied.
Results. Risk representations are weakly related, though the variables are more integrated within the same level. The differences between the groups were found in: some implicit risk theories; average risk assessment; estimates of the riskiness of situations and the likelihood of a negative outcome. The groups also differed in preferences of risk reduction strategies, depending on a subjective riskiness. Thus, the inventories reflect different levels of risk perception, mediated by the professional specifics of the participants. Among doctors evaluation of riskiness of the situation is linked with the lack of control; their implicit risk theories, in general, have little relationship with the representations of specific risks.
Conclusion. Implicit risk theories and cognitive representations of risks appear as different levels of procedural regulation of decision-making; Inventories we developed are good tools for diagnosing representations of medical risks.
The Index of articles published in “MOSCOW UNIVERSITY PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN” in the year 2018
By: Composite authors;
Available Online: 01.12.2018
Relevance. Today there are no real models of the human brain's heuristic activity. In this regard, now it is absent real models of heuristic activity of the human brain, according to the accumulated experimental material, the possibilities of modeling two basic principles of the operation of real neural networks of the human brain was presented.
Goal. The proving of real neuroemulator possibility for system synthesis as a model of heuristic behavior of human brain.
Methods. We propose the numerical repetition of electroencephalogram registration (EEG) and construct the special matrix of their (EEG) comparison. For neuroemulator we propose the numerical repetition and choice value of weight of coefficient wi0for any diagnostic parameters xi(like for real EEG).
Conclusions. It is shown that such two procedures (reverberation and chaos) are identical to the heuristic activity of the brain. The brain selects the main xi* from the set of xi variables and at the same time we move from the phase space m to the new phase space with little dimension n (n<<m). The choice of the main xi*is a problem of system synthesis (finding of the order parameters). It is realized at the expense of reverberation and chaos to neural networks. We must mark: the artificial neuron nets emphasize demonstrate such behavior at every time.
Relevance. The motivation for this work stems from the fact that there are an insufficient number of tools in the Russian psychology that are suitable to investigate the content of human goals.
Objective. Development of a new method for investigating the content of human goals.
Methods. The method of incomplete sentences; clinical conversation; a modification of the projective technique of R. Emmons "Assessment of Personal Aspirations".
Results. A modification of the method of R. Emmons "Assessment of Personal Aspirations" is carried out. The changes made in the proposed version concern not only the incomplete sentences presented to the respondent for their completion, but also the scales of evaluation of personal aspirations (goals): their content, sequence of presentation, and the assessments used. For the analysis of human goals the following 17 scales are introduced: importance, clarity, difficulty, effort, the ability to focus, the degree of enthusiasm, joy, frustration, success in recent times, the probability of success, the influence of circumstances, control over one’s actions, progress, importance for one’s family, the degree of social utility, support, external-internal cause. The estimates of the proposed scales use six-point graduation: from 0 to 5. All the innovations made in the methodology are justified and the necessity of their implementation is shown. The author's interpretation of the data obtained includes: analysis of the content of the selected aspirations (goals) and their classification, which consists in revealing regularly reproduced goals, analog goals and development goals; analysis of the goals by separate scales on the basis of the respondent's evaluation judgments and by the connection of scales with each other; assessment of the influence of the goals on each other, which becomes harmonious or disharmonious. The approbation of the method and possible spheres of its application are discussed.
Conclusions. The declared method is correct, has a great potential for expanding the interpretation and allows one to better understand both the content of the goals and the means for achieving them.
Available Online: 07.09.2018
Relevance of the study is due to the need for more detailed researching of categorization of synonymous ranges of names of basic emotions by the energy characteristics “intensity” and “power”.
Objective. Construction of circular categorical scales of the energy characteristics “intensity” and “power” in the spherical 6-dimensional model of emotions and analysis of language organization of the semantic structure of perception of their names.
Methods. Psychophysical method of revealing mechanisms for structuring semantics in linguistic consciousness based on a neuropsychological spherical model of vector coding of emotional-cognitive operations of detection and differentiation of signals E.N. Sokolov. Method of direct supra-threshold measurement of the subjective value of semantic differences between the names of emotions. Method of multidimensional scaling ALSCAL of subjective differences. The method of modeling the subjective semantic structure in the form of a spherical 6-dimensional Euclidean space. Method of measuring subjective characteristics in the form of circular scales in 2-dimensional subspaces. Methods for grouping and segmention lexical units based on the threshold values of their semantic differences.
The experiment involved 152 people aged 19 to 22 years.
Results. Circular scales of energy characteristics of «intensity» and «power» of emotions are constructed in the spherical 6-dimensional model of the semantic structure of the names of emotions by the combination in pairs of distinctive features-axes “inhibition/excitation” – “variability/stability” and “closeness /openness” – “acceptance/rejection” respectively. 8 and 10 categorical groups of synonyms are highlighted on the “intensity” and “power” scales with gradual values “norm” – “deviation from the norm”. The categories of “intensity” and “power”, expressing a high degree of manifestation of emotions, prevail. The general content for all members of each of the synonymous series on the “intensity” and “power” scales is indicated through their enumeration.
Conclusions. The mechanism of semantic grouping of the names of emotions into categorical classes and segmentation them among themselves has a uniform character based on the computation of differences and belongs to the energy characteristics “intensity” and “power” of emotions as well as the qualitative characteristic of the tone.
Keywords: multidimensional scaling;
the subjective semantic circular scales “intensity” and “power” in the spherical 6-dimensional space;
names of emotions;
categorical property of circular scales;
Available Online: 07.09.2018
Relevance. The relevance of the research is caused by the need of more detailed studying of the emotional and personal well-being of modern students for the purpose of rendering psychological assistance to them on its optimization.
Objective. The work purpose — the analysis of various aspects of emotional and personal well-being of students. Methods: "Self-assessment of Emotional and Personal Well-being (SEPWB)" of G.A. Glotova and L.V. Karapetyan, "Social and psychological adaptation" of K. Rogers and R. Diamond and "Attributional Style Questionnaire" of M. Seligman.
Samples: the main sample - students (n=430), comparison samples – non-student youth (n=608) and convicts (n=99).
Results. By a method of SEPWB it is shown that students on set of parameters of a self-assessment of emotional and personal well-being occupied an intermediate position between the group of non-student youth where estimates are higher student's and group of convicts where estimates of emotional and personal well-being the lowest; in a number of parameters of a method of SEPWB age distinctions between "younger" (17-20 years) and "senior" (21-25 years) student's groups are received; there were no significant differences between the female and male subgroups of students in direct comparison without taking their age into account, but when divided into two age subgroups (17-20 and 21-25 years old), gender differences were observed; a number of correlations of parameters of the SEPWB method and indicators of "Social and psychological adaptation" method of C. Rogers and R. Diamond and "Attributional Style Questionnaire" method of M. Seligman were obtained; four types of the students differing with the level of a self-assessment of emotional and personal well-being on the basis of the SEPWB index – two extreme types and two intermediate are allocated: students with the SEPWB high index, with the increased index, with the reduced index and the low index of SEPWB.
Conclusions. The results confirm the possibility of using the "Self-assessment of emotional and personal well-being" method for studying the age and gender differences between students, as well as characteristic types of experience and assessment of their inner well-being.
Relevance. The necessity to research the self-determination of adolescents in the context of significant socio-cultural changes in the Russian Federation at the beginning of the 21stcentury.
Objective. Study of the value and sense orientation of high school students in modern Russia at the stage of preliminary professional self-determination in adolescence.
Methods. Method of studying personal professional perspective (PPP) by N.S. Pryazhnikov; content analysis.
Sample: 240 pupils (133 female, 107 male) of 9th-11thgrades of Moscow schools, aged 14-17.
Results. An analysis of the responses of adolescents to the questions of the methodology of the PPP showed: 1) In 72,5% of answers high school students perceive honest labor as a value; 2) In 81,7% of answers adolescents recognize the necessity and value of professional education after school; 3) In 62,8% of answers the respondents express doubts, and the authors of 23,3% answers deny the value of complicated and expert labor in Russia; 4) 53,3% of adolescent’s answers reflect the wish to leave Russia or thoughts of such possibility.
Conclusions. 1. In the hierarchy of values and sense orientations of modern adolescents in the area of preliminary professional self-determination, the most expressed values are self-development, qualitative education, career achievements, personal success, the perspectives of professional development and decent wages. 2. The adolescents demonstrate a high level of orientation in the current social and economic situation (the economic crisis in Russia) and admit that positive changes in society should be determined by the recognition by society of the value of complicated and skilled labor, the value of honest labor and the value of labor and education exactly in Russia. 3. The data of the study contains widely represented answers without justification, which may reflect the status of the moratorium in the value-sense self-determination of adolescents in the area of labor and vocational education. 4. The current economic situation in Russia is perceived by the surveyed adolescents as unfavorable. More than half of respondents consider the possibility of getting an education and/or moving to a permanent residence abroad as a variant of their professional future.
Available Online: 07.09.2018
Relevance. Scientific and scientific-organizational activity of a world-famous psychologist A.N. Leontiev is a constant interest of specialists in the field of humanistics, methodologists and historians of psychology. In connection with the 115th anniversary of this outstanding scientist, it seems relevant to remind readers of the poorly studied aspects of his life creation.
Objective. Description of contribution А.N. Leontiev in the development of engineering-psychological, ergonomic and reflexive-acmeological problems in the 1950-1970's.
Methods. Science-research analysis (from the positions of reflexive psychology and personology), and methodological analysis.
Results. The author analyzes such aspects of the scientific heritage of A.N. Leontiev, as his fundamental research of productive thinking and scientific creativity, as well as applied developments in the field of engineering psychology and ergonomics. The fundamental contribution of the scientist to modern human studies and to the institutional construction of psychological science is shown.
Conclusions. Scientific creativity of A.N. Leontiev in the field of psychology is interdisciplinary in nature, because it synthesizes the methodological orientations of modern humanities - natural science, technology cybernetic, social and humanitarian. The crown of the enormous scientific and organizational activity of A.N. Leontiev became a large-scale institutionalization of Russian psychology, which demanded from him not less vision and intuition, intelligence and will, diplomacy and energy than his outstanding creative activity in the field of philosophy, psychology, ergonomics and pedagogy.
This year Kokurina Irina Georgievna has her 70th anniversary. Our congratulations for the talented scientist and teacher, PhD in psychology, associate Professor of the Department of Social psychology, Faculty of psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Relevance. Both personality and clinical psychology suppose many empirical examples describing the disengagement from activity and shifting to another one as quite effective: e.g., unfulfilled dreams and regret for them, severe illnesses or disabling conditions, etc. These examples demonstrate the importance of study of refusal from the goal and goal change as special self-regulatory processes that are not reducible to other processes of self-regulation (e.g., planning, modeling, achievement) and can be productive. Such studies require a validated measure.
Objective. The aim of this work was to validate the Russian-language version of the Goal Disengagement and Re-Engagement Scale, proposed in the self-regulation theory by C. Carver and M. Scheier.
Methods. 287 students and 4792 employees of a large production organization filled out the Russian-language version of the Goal Disengagement and Re-Engagement Scale (Wrosch et al., 2003a). The students also filled the Inventory of Styles of Behavior Self-regulation, a modification of the J. Kuhl’s Action Control Scale Test, a Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire.
Results. Both internal consistency and factor structure of the scale were demonstrated in both samples. The external validity of the scale is confirmed by the expected pattern of correlations with action / state orientation, behavior self-regulation and strategies of cognitive regulation of emotions. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis show that goal disengagement and reengagement differ from other aspects of self-regulation of behavior not only structurally (at the level of their correlations with each other) but also functionally: after statistical control of the other aspects of self-regulation, goal disengagement and reengagement still predict a number of cognitive strategies regulation of emotions.
Conclusions. The psychometric properties of the Russian-language version of the Goal Disengagement and Re-Engagement Scale are sufficient for its application for research purposes. Further studies could focus on the differentiation of the process of goal change and other self-regulatory processes, especially their effect on the productivity, health, well-being.