Full list of the articles, published in Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 2017
By: Composite authors;
Available Online: 30.12.2017
The article analyzes various factors of life satisfaction of people of elderly and senile age. At the theoretical level, the assumption is that the integrating condition of satisfaction with life at this age is the central life idea (purpose, meaning). A generalized model of life satisfaction, based on the coordinates determining the common life idea (altruistic or egoistic) and the position of personality activity (creative or passive) is proposed. In the psychological space formed by these coordinates, one can identify the aspirations of the person himself (his “I want”), his real capabilities (“I can”), as well as expectations on the part of people relevant to him both in relation to “I want” and in relation to “I can”. The model allows reflecting the contradictions between the “I want” and “I can” of this person, as well as the contradictions between his intentions, self-esteem and expectations on the part of people relevant to him. When different elements of satisfaction do not coincide, problems arise and crises in the development of the elderly and old man. More concrete models of self-determination at the considered age in relation to their past, to the real present and prospective future are presented. The models of life satisfaction are proposed for further analysis: a creative model (search for new goals and opportunities for development), a model of “right” life (passive realization of the stereotypes of a pensioner's life), a “paternalistic” model (caring for others), a model of “ignoring” old age, the model of protection of their rights (in the conditions of imperfection of pension systems), the models of struggle for survival (in the conditions of sharp deterioration of health), the model of preparation for death, the model of self-assertion and the model of comprehension of the lived. Promising hypotheses of further research are formulated, reflecting possible options for complementarity and conflict of different models.
Study objectives: to examine the severity of the personal social psychological attitudes of an individual in the need-motivational sphere, the Dark Triad traits, and the components of burnout, as well as the interrelationships between these features among physicians with different lengths of professional experience.
Participants: 124 people between the ages of 20 and 62; 4 groups of respondents, differing in the length of their professional experience (student, less than 10 years, 11-20 years and over 20 years of work experience).
Materials: O.F. Potemkina’s “Social psychological attitudes in the need-motivational sphere of the person diagnostics test”, “The Dark Triad inventory” adapted by M.S. Egorova and M.A. Sitnikova and the “Maslach Burnout Inventory” adapted by N.E. Vodopyanova.
Methods of data analysis: Cronbach’s alpha, descriptive statistics, crosstabulation (chi-squared test), one-way analysis of variance (with Tukey post-hoc test), one-sample Student t-test, Spearman’s correlation, comparison of correlations using Fisher’s z-transformation.
Results: The altruistic attitude of practicing doctors is higher than that of students, but does not depend on the length of experience. A greater intention towards work is observed for participants with the medical work experience over 10 years. There is no established connection between work experience and the intensity of burnout in the respondents. Physicians with the average experience expressed weaker non-clinical narcissism and a psychopathy than students. The structure of the interrelationships between social psychological attitudes, the Dark Triad traits, and the components of burnout has specificity on the samples with various lengths of professional experience. We suggest interpretations for differences found in the severity and patterns of the connections between the indicators; they are summarized in the psychological portrait of a physician with a certain amount of experience.
A multicomponent model of multiculturalism by the Canadian cross-cultural psychologist John W. Berry is one of the most famous approaches designed to ensure the harmonization of intercultural relations in a plural society. Today including in Russia an applicability of this model has been widely investigating. However, in the light of social cognition, the model does not clearly define relations between the multicultural ideology and various principles of intergroup categorization; the existing empirical findings within the framework of the Berry’s model and within social cognition still to some extent consider intergroup relations somewhat isolated from each other. In this present exploratory study was examined the relationships between interethnic categorization (assimilation, colorblind, multicultural, polycultural) and multicultural ideology by Berry. A survey of ethnic Russians from the Central Federal District of Russia was conducted. The results showed that the multicultural ideology was positively associated with the colorblind, multicultural, and polycultural categorization and also negatively with the assimilation one. Although the colorblind categorization that purportedly rejects cultural diversity was positively associated with the multicultural ideology, this relation had small effect size. The findings of the study suggested that an acceptance and endorsement of cultural diversity and egalitarianism in Russia that according to Berry is a content core of the concept multiculturalism can be realized through polycultural, multicultural, and to a lesser extent through colorblind categorization.
Ideas of the school students having experience of participation in the educational project and research activity (PRA) about educational researches and projects are considered that is relevant due to the need of formation, since high school, experts of research type.
Objective: to reveal the attitude of school students towards various aspects of project and research activity.
Methods: “Unfinished sentences”; questioning on the questions connected with participation in PRA; nonverbal method “Emoticons”. Sample included 84 school students of the fifth, sixth, eighth and ninth grades.
Results: The unfinished sentences method identified seven categories of definitions that school students give to educational researches and projects. Questioning has shown that school students prefer voluntary participation in educational project and research activity; concerning preference of educational researches or projects there are differences in verbal and nonverbal answers, however in ninth grade both methods found that students preferred educational researches to projects; the readiness for implementation of educational projects on all studied subjects from a third to a half of school students has been estimated by low points; the desire in future professional activity to carry out projects and researches has been estimated, mainly, by average points.
Conclusions: The revealed general tendency reflects the positive attitude towards the above-named educational technology; however, there are both significant individual differences, and the differences between grades in ideas of school students of project and research activity and the attitude towards it demanding profound studying for the purpose of further improvement of this educational technology.
In this paper was studied the attention properties of students aged 12—17 who are living in different climatic regions: the city of Surgut in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District and in rural areas of the middle Russia (Samara Region). The students of the first group live in the extreme climatic conditions of the North, aggravated by the adverse social and environmental factors of urbanization. The students of the second group live in a climatically and environmentally friendly area, with minimal impact of man-made pollution. The method used to estimate the attention of Bourdon, in the modification proposed by the Soviet psychologist P.A. Rudik. A comparative statistical analysis of the results obtained the attention properties of different groups of students are carried out. The dynamics of changes in the K, E, A indices during the test was estimated, the coefficients for the whole test and for each minute of the experiment were calculated too. Specific features of the development of student’s attention: identified according age, gender differences, differences in the development of indicators of attention of students in two different schools. Significant differences (P<0.001) in the distribution and productivity of attention were revealed, the coefficient of productivity of attention of students in Surgut was 1.15 times lower than that of their peers in the Samara region. According to new theory of chaos-selforganization it was calculated the quasiattractors volume V for three coordinates Zi (coefficient of attention concentration, attention quality, attention production). It was demonstrated the maximum volume V of quasiattractor for 14—15 year old pupils of Surgut. Very small volume V demonstrates pupils of 16—17 year of Samara district. Reducing the size of quasi-tractors demonstrates a decrease in variation range and represents a greater consolidation of the group in terms of studied parameters (large volumes of quasi-tractors in Surgut population can indicate a large variation in parameters of attention and performance).
The text of P.Ya. Galperin at the All-Union Conference on Psychology, held at the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the RSFSR in 1953. In this report, for the first time in a holistic form, the foundations of his world-famous method for the systematic, step-by-step formation of mental actions and concepts are presented. The author states that the question of mental actions, i.e. about what our ability to solve “in the mind” different tasks is part of the broader problem of the activity of human consciousness, taken not in philosophical or socio-historical, but in specifically its psychological content. The way of formation of mental actions that make up a significant part of what is taught in school is described as a successive transition from mastering actions with objects through action in terms of audible speech to transferring an action to the mental plane. The stages of this process are singled out: 1) drawing up a preliminary view of the assignment; 2) mastering the action with objects; 3) mastering the action in terms of audible speech; 4) transferring an action to the mental plane; 5) the final formation of mental action. A detailed description of each stage is given. The author emphasizes that the step-by-step formation of mental actions remains the actual content of the learning process of new skills, regardless of the individual or collective nature of instruction, and the scale of the main parameters retains value for evaluating the learned action regardless of the actual content and quality of this training. In conclusion, the author expresses the hope that the knowledge of the process of step-by-step formation of mental actions and their other parameters will serve as a theoretical basis for the management of full-fledged training.
Based on the critical examination of existing models of the psychological analysis of the lesson (PAL), we suggest a model of PAL, developed from the positions of the activity approach (A.N. Leontiev, P.Ya. Galperin, N.F. Talysina, V.V. Davydov, D.B. Elkonin). As the critical review shows, the basic models of the PAL in traditional didactics are related to the evaluation of the degree of implementation in the lesson of conditions for the effective functioning of students' mental processes. This model is based on the idea of a quality lesson as a lesson that maximizes the use of various types of mental processes (processes of thinking, memory, attention, imagination, etc.). From the point of view of the activity approach, psychological analysis should presuppose an assessment of the extent to which the activities that children realize in the lesson are adequate to the goals of the lesson set by the teacher. So a quality lesson is a lesson in which students carry out activities psychologically adequate to the goals set. The article proposes five criteria for the PAL, which correspond to the principles of the activity approach: 1) the specifics of setting the objectives of the lesson, 2) the adequacy of the actions performed by the students, the stated goals; 3) the features of action means, 4) the features of control and feedback and 5) the features of assessing the performance of students' actions. An example of a lesson analysis scheme developed on the basis of the proposed model is given.
The problem of differentiation of personal profiles based on MMPI is traditionally solved either theoretically with help of the 2- or 3-peak coding system, or is empirically based on the results of a cluster analysis of clinical scales. In the first case, the encoding system looks unreasonably complicated. In the second case, the results are vulnerable to criticism, on the one hand, due to interference of the scales themselves, and, on the other hand, due to not taking into account measurement errors and due to restrictions for clusters differentiated. In this paper, we propose an alternative based on the latent profile analysis of restructured clinical scales of MMPI-2. Based on the normative sample of the validation of the Russian-language Minnesota multifactorial personality questionnaire, second version, (MMPI-2, N = 1443), four types of latent profiles were identified: normative one with mean values for most scales and a small peak on the Hypomanic Activation scale, “neurotic” profile with an increase in the “neurotic triad” scales, “psychopathic-like” profile with high scores on all scales and peaks on the scales of schizophrenia, paranoia and psychasthenia, and “defensive / suppressive” profile with extremely low scores on all scales and a small peak on the scale of low level of positive emotions. Profiles’ comparison by the content and supplementary scales of MMPI-2 and "Big Five" traits suggests that in those having the “psychopathic-like” profile, the risk of externalized problems is maximal and the risk of internalized problems is high. Those with the “neurotic” profile have a high risk of internalized problems, while their distinctive trait is the experience of social discomfort. The analysis of “defensive” profile suggests possible difficulties associated with chronic suppression of emotions, in particular, somatization and sudden affect expressions.
The purpose of the review is to explore the transformation of ideas about the relationship of various parameters of self-esteem with subjective well-being, the productivity of educational activity and the success of a professional career. Iinitially, the level of self-esteem (high or low) was considered as the most important parameter. The studies show that people with a high level of self-esteem have more positive self-attitude, their subjective well-being is higher, they are less prone to depression and anxiety disorders, and they show more positive expectations about future achievements and relationships with other people. They are more persistent when meeting failures. On the other hand, the level of self-esteem does affect the productivity neither of the activity nor the quality of the relationship. In addition, high self-esteem is often a heterogeneous category, which includes not only the acceptance of one's ppositive qualities but also narcissistic and defensive components. The contradictory role of self-esteem level has prompted researchers to address other parameters of self-esteem: stability or instability and the contingencies of self-esteem. These parameters are closely related; they affect the subjective well-being and quality of activity and allow shedding lightt on the role of self-esteem in the mental life of a person. The analysis led to the conclusion that the identification and delineation of healthy and neurotic contingencies of self-esteem is a promising area for further research, which can help in the formation of healthy self-esteem in children and adolescents.
The article presents the result of a series of five empirical studies. Across multiple samples with typical development we have established a set of relationships between decision making strategies in Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and such traits as intelligence (general, verbal), executive functions (shifting and inhibition), as well as personality traits of tolerance/intolerance for uncertainty and Big Five personality traits.
The series of empirical studies aimed at verifying a set of hypotheses regarding the role of intelligence and tolerance/intolerance for uncertainty as predictors of choice strategies in IGT, regarding the contribution of executive functions to the regulation of these strategies, as well as identifying the specifics of prognostic strategies of professionals whose occupation involves high risk – i.e., military leaders.
The main measure was Iowa Gambling Task. This task relies on the prognostic/anticipatory activity of the person playing the game that regulates the sequence of choices that they make from four decks of “cards” that have a probabilistic structure of gains and losses, unknown to the participant at the beginning. According to A. Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, emotional components play a key role in decision making regulation.
Studies 1 through 3 recruited undergraduate students and general population samples; studies 4 and 5 relied on samples of military leaders.
In addition to the IGT, we also measures a set of cognitive and personality traits, including executive functions (using the Go/No Go paradigm), intelligence (using ROADS and ICAR), tolerance-intolerance for uncertainty (using the NTN questionnaire), Big Five personality traits (using the TIPI questionnaire), and personal factors of decision making (using the LFR questionnaire).The studies revealed significant and positive contributions of intelligence and executive functions (i.e., shifting and inhibition) to decisional efficiency and the development of choice strategies, thus implicating cognitive orienting as the key component of decision making in IGT. We also established a set of group differences in both strategies and patterns of the regulation of choices in IGT between military and non-military samples. We also found that it is specifically during early game stages (characterized by maximal uncertainty) that specific personality traits contribute most to decision making – tolerance for uncertainty was such a predictor for our non-military samples, and risk readiness acted as one in military leaders. Conventional Big Five personality traits did not contribute to participants’ performance in the IGT.
Available Online: 30.10.2017
This year marks the 70th anniversary of the publication of the monograph by N.A. Bernshtein "On the construction of movements" and 60 years since the publication of his eighth essay "The urgent problems of the regulation of motor acts". In these works, for the first time, the problem of uncertainty in the organization (and dynamics of behavior) of all systems, which we now designate as homeostatic or systems of the third type, according to W. Weaver's classification, was first raised. This problem was voiced by N.A. Bernstein as the hypothesis of "repetition without repetition", within which it is possible (as suggested by Bernstein) to describe any motor acts. After a detailed study of the various types of motion in biomechanics, we ascertained that modern deterministic-stochastic science has approached its developmental boundary in the study of living systems, since the main thesis about the repeatability and predictability of the state of the biosystem (neuronets of the brain, the human psyche) is violated. We turn to the study of systems that are in a continuous chaotic regime of changes of any parameters xi of such (unstable) systems. The Eskov-Zinchenko effect, which is a quantitative proof of Bernshtein’s hypothesis of "repetition without repetition", is that the successively obtained samples xi (in one, unchanged state) demonstrate a kaleidoscope of statistical distribution functions f(x), i.e. fj(xi)≠fj+1(xi) for two neighboring registered (from one person) registered samples xi (i.e., for the jth and j+1th). This erases the boundaries between arbitrary and involuntary movements from the standpoint of their objective, statistical evaluation. Statistical instability of any received samples of parameters xi, which describe homeostatic systems, requires new concepts and new models - models of homeostasis.
Russia joined the European Higher Education Area (Bologna process), that made innovative changes in the organization of educational process in Russian universities an urgent issue. The article raises questions concerning the difficult position of the lecturer in the context of the restructuring of university life, the lecturer’s health and subjective well-being, productivity and quality of his work. It is argued, that innovative educational activity increases not only time, physical, professional, social load for the lecturer, but as well the load on his personality; the work of the lecturer in these conditions is becoming increasingly high-tech, requiring great intellectual and emotional engagement. The authors propose to consider the indicators of subjective well-being (somatic, mental, social, spiritual) of the educational process participants as one of the objective functions of pedagogical technologies development and as one of the indicators of pedagogical activity efficiency. The article covers in detail such factors of the productivity lecturers’ work as educational process automation and lecturers’ activity management. The authors note that the educational process automation through the use of complex forms of artificial intelligence is possible only if it is based on the intellectual potential created by previous generations of university lecturers and scientists. The idea is suggested about the need to save the teaching staff of universities and about the special responsibility of university management for developing the conditions for creative self-realization of teaching personnel. The organization and periodic certification of lecturers is analyzed as one of the areas of university management. The emphasis is placed on the importance of lifelong professional training of high school lecturers and education managers.
Keywords: innovative university;
automation of educational process;
quality of teaching activity;
the lecturer as a value of educational system;
certification of lecturers;
the management system of education quality;
Available Online: 30.10.2017
The method “Fairy Semantic Differential”, during which a respondent should assess a number of fairy-tale characters according to a set of personal characteristics, is designed for the individual work of a psychologist with children 4—9 years old. Personality characteristics, according to which the characters are evaluated, are formulated in terms that parents, teachers use when dealing with children of this age. An analysis of the child's attitude to this or that fairy-tale character allows us to determine the specificity of his (her) moral-value sphere. The method also allows evaluating of real adults, who are significant for the child (parents, teachers, etc.) Comparison of fairy-tale characters' ratings with those of a significant adult makes it possible to reveal the specifics of the child's attitude to this adult. The article discusses quantitative indicators that can be calculated using the data of the answering the questionnaire. These indicators characterize the child’s personality, his (her) understanding of interpersonal relationships with surrounding people, dimension of categorical space of interpersonal perception, content of this categories and its hierarchy, the level of cognitive development in this area, the degree of socialization. The method allows measuring self-esteem indices. The results of an empirical study of Moscow primary schoolchildren using the method “Fairy Semantic Differential” are presented, during which a psychometric analysis of the indicators was conducted. It was shown that the cognitive complexity of interpersonal perception, determined by the method “Fairy Semantic Differential” is significantly higher among adults, does not correlate with intelligence tests. Socialization increases with age, is significantly higher among girls than among boys, partly correlates with known methods that measure the level of social adaptation of a child, the degree of differentiation of moral and conventional norms, verbal intellect. The analysis of self-esteem indices reveals significantly higher self-criticism among girls, than among boys.
Ñêàçî÷íûé ñåìàíòè÷åñêèé äèôôåðåíöèàë;
identification with significant adults;
Available Online: 10.09.2017
The article concerns the problem of developing online technologies for adolescents’ career guidance and professional consultation with regard to their huge interest in computer programs (games and other entertainments) on the one hand, and the apparent lack of science-based computer methods of professional self-determination, on the other hand. We analyze the positive and questionable aspects of the design and the practical use of online technologies in professional counseling compared to existing technologies used in the professional consultation. We also consider the capabilities and limitations of these online technologies in solving the basic problems of vocational guidance (information, diagnostic, moral and emotional support of the client, assistance in decision-making and career planning). For example, the development of the author's methodology of “Choose and Go” designed for adolescents’ online use, shows the problem facing the designers of such software products, solutions to these problems. The basic ideas of this methodology are: comprehensive assessment of select work on the basis of full consideration of the psychological structure of the work; the use of expert assessments of the extent to which components of professional activity correspond to the official list of the integrated groups of specialties; the use in the modes of the real and online professional counseling; the account not only the desires of a teenager, but his/her current and potential abilities.
Available Online: 10.09.2017
The article substantiates the influence of the planning style of activity on the reliability of the driver's activity. The work includes the description of the process of creating and approving the questionnaire "Individual style of driver's activity". The questionnaire contains questions assessing the means used by the driver to carry out activities (in particular, referring to the preservation of information on the road environment, schemes for organizing traffic on a particular route). Data on the reliability of the questionnaire (internal consistency and retest) are presented. The procedure for estimating the compensating effect of the planning style of the driver's activity on the reliability of the activity with a low speed of switching of attention is described. Compensation effect was determined by the ratio of the level of compliance with the requirements of the activity for the speed of switching of attention and the formation of a planning style of activity. The reliability of the drivers' activity was evaluated by a group of experts by recording the number and type of accidents involving drivers. The correlation between the reliability of the driver during life and during the last year was investigated. A higher level of reliability of driving activity is determined by a combination of a higher social status of the driver, with its greater connection with the transport sector, a more mature age, a more markedly planned style of activity, and a higher level of reliability of activities throughout life.
In different studies the concept of "subjective well-being" varies with related concepts and constructs ("life satisfaction", "happiness", "psychological well-being"). Hedonic traditions of interpretation of subjective well-being involve affective experiences as a central component, and eudmonistic variants emphasize the importance of self-realization processes of the individuals. Subjective well-being when considering it as satisfaction with life is determined by the objective conditions of human existence, but sometimes indirectly. The article describes the main results of an empirical study of eudemonic and hedonistic factors, conducted on 120 young people (students, 18-26, 60 male and 60 female). The hedonistic aspect of subjective well-being is connected both with the conditions of the environment and with personal characteristics, including eudemonistic. These objective and subjective characteristics can be called factors that determine the level of subjective well-being, but since it performs regulatory functions and directs the transforming activity of the subject, it is more correct to talk about the interdependence of these parameters. Self-relationship is connected with a sense of subjective well-being - positive self-perception, self-interest and self-acceptance increase subjective well-being, but in combination with unfavorable external conditions (in particular, low life fullness), on the contrary, reduce the experience of happiness and satisfaction. At the same time, the most important thing in experiencing happiness and satisfaction with life in adolescence is the eudemonic characteristics of a person - self-belief, maturity and the value of positive relationships with others. Realization of the potential acts as the central factor of hedonistic aspects of subjective well-being.
Available Online: 10.09.2017
The object of research — destructive manifestations in professional activity and labor behavior, as well as the processes of deprofessionalization of individual and group subjects of labor. The definitions of “professional deformations” and “professional destructions” are analyzed. The difference in the essence of these concepts, reflecting the effect of different psychological mechanisms, is shown. “Professional deformation” leads to distortions in the structure of work activity or personality traits. “Professional destruction” leads to destruction (or destructive construction) of the structure of activity (changing its focus on other goals and results) or personality (orientation to the opposite labor and life values). The destructive effect is connected with the meaning-forming function of the motive that replaces the normative goal of the performed professional activity with another goal — personally significant and useful for the given performer, but socially harmful. “Pseudo-professionalism” (“false” professionalism) of the individual and group subject of labor is analyzed. Deprofessionalization of the subject is associated with the loss of professional identity, the destruction or non-acceptance of professional values. The problems of adaptation of a true professional in the group of pseudo-professionals (professional marginals) are considered. Conclusion: A profession as a social institution can counteract destructive processes of deprofessionalization of subjects of labor (primarily group ones) through the implementation of expert functions of professional associations.
By: Druzhilov, Sergey A;
Available Online: 10.09.2017
Objectives of the study: to analyze the social, psychological and biological determinants of the activity and success of athletes; Describe the phenomenon of "psychological niches" on the model of sport. The article analyzes the results of a survey of more than 150 people - high-ranking sportsmen, freestyle wrestlers, classical and judo; Polls of coaches of the highest category (12 people); Materials of literary sources. The study showed that in the sport of higher achievements (SHA), the effects of joint activity of the subjects are systematically manifested, the consequence of which is the selection and fixing of athletes with certain individual psychological features (physique, typological properties of the nervous system, functional asymmetry, personal characteristics, styles of activity) in Certain types and specializations. In different sports and specializations, stable proportions of representatives of different types (physique, nervous system properties, functional asymmetry, personal characteristics, and styles) are preserved, as well as the success characteristic of each type in tournaments and different "ranges" of their success. Formed among athletes different types of activity styles are focused on the actualization of different stable segments of "activity spaces". These effects, determined by the interaction of social, psychological and biological conditions, are called "psychological niches", the characteristic features of which are: ordering in space and time of interactions of subjects; A limited set of mutually complementary types of adaptation of subjects in a dynamic environment; Manifestations are not single, but special, typical; Adaptation of subjects to a part of environmental conditions, as a sufficient and necessary condition for their success; Propensity to master subjects by typical operational complexes (systems, "blocks" of actions); Orientation on typical features of partners and environmental conditions; Success with interactions with typical partners (rivals), etc.
Available Online: 10.09.2017
The article is an attempt of a scientific analysis of psychological and pedagogical works and historical-methodological research by P.Ya. Galperin, who is widely known as one of the most influential domestic psychologists of the second half of the 20th century and who held a position of the professor of the Faculty of Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University. The introduction states that the fundamental works of P.Ya. Galperin had a significant impact not only on the development of a number of areas of psychological science and educational practice, but also for teaching them the basics in philosophical and psychological faculties of Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1940-1980-ies. It is noted that the developed by P.Ya. Galperin original concept and an innovative method based on fundamental philosophical grounds, and he rightfully possessed the deserved reputation of one of the largest theorists of psychological science. The following are 12 key stages of life P.Ya. Galperin. The ten main directions of his scientific and pedagogical activity are characterized. Detail reflected the development of P.Ya. Galperin and his scientific school of General and pedagogic psychology of the formation of creative thinking. Highly valued pedagogical activity of P.Ya. Galperin at Moscow University. Given the facts of the development of the heritage of P.Ya. Galperin in problem field of modern anthropology.
By: Semionov I.N.;
Keywords: Galperin P.Y.;
history of psychology;
subject of psychology;
mental and ideal acts;
stage-by-stage formation of mental acts;
Available Online: 10.09.2017
This article is devoted to the investigation of the role, which the systemic reflection plays in the organization, initiation and direction of the process of professional becoming. Reflection is considered as the most important regulative component of personality, which opens to the human the possibility of self-regulation and self-management that allows him to be an active subject of professional becoming. We distinguish three types of reflexive processes, which support the subjective orientation of the process of professionalization and open to the specialists the opportunity to “problematize themselves”. “Problematization of oneself ” on the basis of personal preferences and meanings, which are extracted from the direct experience of prior psychotechnical work, orients the specialists regarding the future steps of professionalization. We discuss the psychotechnical tools, which open the possibility of reflection for working out significant aspects of professionalism. We give self-reports of students who analyzed their professional possibilities by the proposed psychotechnical means.
This article reports the results of empirical research, dedicated to the features of the relationship between perceived corporate culture and employee’s organizational identification. The influence and the nature (a moderator or a mediator) of the variable “person-organization fit” were studied. Participants were 92 employees of for-profit companies. The data was mathematically processed using a correlation analysis and a partial correlation analysis. The data indicate that the person-organization fit (as a moderator) influenced the relationship between perceived corporate culture of open paradigm and organizational identification. Thus, the person-organization fit is an intermediate variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation. This suggests that the more employees believe that his values fit the organizational ones, which characterize the open paradigm, the more he will identify with it. It may be assumed that the revealed relationship is bilateral, because, probably, these two variables determine each other. A further perspective of this research area is to clarify the obtained findings and to check other variables, which can influence given interrelation.
In this study we tested the hypothesis about advantage of academic motivation profile with dominating intrinsic motivation over another profile with equally high intrinsic, self-esteem and controlled types of motivation (and low level of amotivation). Latent class analysis confirmed the suggestion that these two profiles are most typical in university students. Students with high and dominating intrinsic motivation showed highest curiosity, consistency of interests, perceived academic control and academic achievements but didn’t differ from students with high controlled motivation by the perseverance of effort that was high in both types. Generally the results show that high extrinsic controlled motivation is a disadvantageous factor that decreases student motivational potential. The results are discussed from the point of view of self-determination theory and need model of motivation.
Development and state of the art of psychological studies related to the Internet mediation are analyzed. Current tendencies and prospects of such studies are thoroughly discussed. Among these studies such parameters as distribution, reputational leveling and anonymity need to be specially mentioned. Dispersion or distant collaboration between almost or totally unfamiliar people is related to attempts to state an empirical quotient C, or collective intelligence for small groups. Such quotient is believed to be relatively disconnected to the individual IQs of the group participants. While such attempts lack theoretical base, they are characteristic for applied psychological studies. For bloggers, networkers or videogame players reputational leveling means extension of their reputations, namely the level gained in a videogame, or credibility in the communities of users of multiple Web services. Reputational leveling may be the result of real achievements or of well-organized self-presentations. In the cyberspace there is only partial anonymity, as it is seen in the field of cybersecurity and struggle against cybercrime. A recent tendency is to mark network activity of networkers, namely their “likes” or “dislikes”. After these marks are collected, numerous Big Data methods help correlate particular samples of these marks with both socio-demographical and psychological characteristics of the users. Once this is done, targeted advertisements can be sent out. This methodology is said to be exploited recently during important election campaigns. Among the possible means of confronting such influences we should mention a phenomenon of alternative identities. Networkers were earlier found to develop and support alternative identities which partly differ from the networkers’ real-life personalities. Although alternative identities are often supported independently of the aims connected with obstruction to sending out the targeted advertisements, this phenomenon may decrease the effectiveness of any impact related to the social networks.
By: Voiskounsky A.E.;
Available Online: 30.04.2017
This article considers the possibilities of bringing together of the two psychological scientific fields: pathopsychology and social psychology. The realization of that approach will enable to expand opportunities of analyzing the irrational and destructive forms of social behaviour and registering various forms of pathological adaptation described in pathopsychology quite clearly. As a possible variant, there are notions of modern psychoanalysis about different types of personality structure which form in the course of interpersonal relationships during individual ontogeny. Within the framework of the proposed hypothesis about the possibility of employing pathopsychological explanatory constructs in relation to social-psychological phenomena, psychoanalytical model is transferred onto social relations. It discusses the possibilities of making use of the pathological phenomena (delusional formations, psychological defenses, addictions) for the interpretation of inadequate relations between a subject and society. The principal structures of personality organization correspond to different variants of social relationships.