This short article discusses innovations in training and personnel assessment associated with the implementation of gamification of computer tools for learning and assessing (psycho-diagnostics). In the theoretical part of the article the authors give an operational definition of the term “gamification”, and also discussed factors that impede successful gamification — reduces the validity of computer psycho-diagnostic methods based on the use of game elements. In an experimental-methodological part of the article describes a new brief, threeminute computer technique for the estimation of a functional state called “The spoons”. This technique is a game modification of the classic “proof-reading test”. The authors publish data on a sufficiently high reliability and validity of the new method, confirming the possibility of its use as a tool for monitoring (operational security) functional status.
The aim of this article is to display the perspectives of synthesis of two modern branches in business consulting: social pathopsychology and beatotherapy. The integration of these branches is possible due to introduction of the new subject of psychological organizational space, which has intangible and tangible representations. Social pathopsychology and beatotherapy are used to assess unconscious aspects of psychological organizational space and to detect some crucial for organizational functioning patterns. The hypothesis states that decoding of unconscious patterns can change the following psychological characteristics of organizational space: mental features of organizational space, organizational relations and organizational actions.
The article discusses methodological potential of the concept of paradigm in psychology. The issues of paradigm’s definition, the base of psychological paradigms allocation, classification of paradigms and paradigm’s patterns of development in psychology are considered. The author offers her own view of the problem of paradigms in psychology. She analyzes the four research paradigms of psychology: gnoseological, phenomenological, activity and existential one — and emphasizes their connection with certain currents of philosophy. The features of transformations of these paradigms in their transition to applied psychology, practical psychology and psychotherapy are followed. The reasons for the coexistence and integration of different paradigms in modern psychology are analyzed.
The results of the development of a new computer guidance method for senior schoolchildren on the basis of “Formulas of the profession” (E.A. Klimov) and a modern scheme for the analysis of professions (N.S. Pryazhnikov) are presented. The main stages of obtaining expert estimates are shown, which made it possible to correlate the components of professional activity with the official list of enlarged specialties of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. The advantage of 3-level grades of schoolchildren (“I want”, “I can now” and “could in the future”) is considered before the traditional assessment of schoolchildren’s actual preferences. In the process of choosing a profession, the preferred characteristics of future work activity are set not in the form of direct estimates of their traditional designations (subject, purpose, means, conditions, etc.), but through paired comparisons of the main labor activities and training activities. The computer-based online testing system works with the methodology through the Web-interface on modern software platforms — Windows, Android, MacOS, iOS, Linux.
The article presents the results of a study of professional development stages of crises in the choice of profession, vocational training, and at the initial stage of professional activity. We used the methods of a comprehensive program aimed at studying the performance of educational and professional development, the severity of the crisis experiences, personality traits and coping strategies. The sample included high school students, university students, and budding professionals. In total 1,500 people aged 15 to 28 years old. The study revealed a high prevalence of crises in all the studied stages of professional development. The content and extent of the crisis is determined by the stage of development experiences, personal resources, and social situation of development. It is shown that increasing the importance of the choice of profession stage for the subsequent stages of professional development.
Attitude to work and features of the manifestation of burnout syndrome in management activities are considered in the context of the problem of psychological provision of occupational health. The article discusses the results of an empirical study aimed at studying the characteristics of attitudes toward work in the development of the burnout syndrome in management activities, which acts as one of the key criteria for the professional health of managers. It is shown that in general, the average level of burnout syndrome is characteristic for managers, the most significant contribution to the development of which is made by such functional components as lack of help and lack of psychological support of colleagues in work, as well as problems of professional development and self-improvement. Gender differences in the development of burnout syndrome among managers are analyzed. The obtained results can be used in the development and implementation of programs for early prevention and correction of burnout of managers based on the subject-resource approach to the psychological provision of occupational health of work subjects.
The article analyzes the concepts of “Ability”, “Professional suitability”, “Professional psychological selection”, in the development and understanding of which a significant contribution was made by E.A. Klimov. Professional psychological selection is considered as a system, the systemforming factor of which is the professional suitability of a person who chooses a specific profession. The content of the concept of ability includes the motivation and experience (knowledge, skills, and abilities) of the individual, by analogy with the dynamic functional structure of personality developed by K.K. Platonov. Its own definition of the term “Abilities” is presented.
To analyze the stages of mastering professional actions, an eco-psychological model of the formation of subjectivity is used. As an initial prerequisite for the development of this model, the notion of continuum “spontaneous activity — activity in the form of an action” is used. A description is given of the seven stages of development of subjectivity as the ability to be a subject of professional action.
Proceeding from his own concept of professional creativity, the author consistently analyzes the concepts of profession and specialty, as well as professionalism, pointing to the factors that led socially and historically to changes in the world of professional activity and the corresponding changes in vocational training. On a vast array of material, it is shown that the process of professional development as the search for non-trivial ways of development of activities should become the basis of professional training in any field.
Professional communication in the jury trial is seen as communion lawyers in complex communicative space with two circuits and two foci. We analyze the communicative tasks of lawyers and describe the possible difficulties in communicating in a professional jury, as well as some results of the study of the difficulties of understanding between lawyers and jurors in the trial.
We propose an approach to the analysis of the psychological mechanism of downshifting on the basis of the model of subjective quality of life. The use of the concept subjective quality of life allows us to approach the development of a model of the psychological mechanism of downshifting and conduct on her holistic analysis of this phenomenon. The model of subjective quality of life criteria are emotional and rational life satisfaction. A necessary condition for the downshifting is a low level of emotional life satisfaction, while the level of rational life satisfaction may be at a high enough level. An important element of objective analysis of downshifting is to modify the subjective component of quality of life as human potential, which determines the rating of the downshifting of the subject his social environment.
The problem of age-psychological aspects of professional civil servant destruction is considered. The main stages of development of moral readiness of the worker for work with strong risks of professional destructions are singled out. Characteristics of “forced” and “natural” professional destruction by civil servants are given.
The article discusses the problem of responsibility in the exercise of professional self-determination in adolescence. The value of the moral values of the personality as the basis of professional self-determination and the assumption of responsibility for the choice is discussed. The personal components of responsibility are singled out - autonomy and moral character.
The article discusses the problem of understanding the construct of “employee engagement in the organization” in scientific and practical literature. It is shown that the concept of “organizational commitment”, “organizational citizenship behavior”, “organizational identification” and “work engagement” are often seen as overlapping with the construct of “employee engagement in the organization”. There is also a variety of concepts describing the relationship of the employee with the organization, which creates terminological confusion and difficulties for their practical use. It is proposed to merge the concept of “identification”, “commitment to organization” and “work engagement” in a more general notion of “involvement of employees in the organization”. Briefly describe the results of two empirical studies that partly confirm the heuristic character of this approach.
The purpose of the cycle of works — analysis of the syndromes of occupational stress, developing in the context of the implementation of the various modern types of labor, and individually-personal characteristics of the working of the human factors that determine resistance to stressful conditions of activity on the part of ensuring the success of the work safety of mental health and personal well-being. Describes two developed in the framework of structural-integrative approach to the stress analysis of a comprehensive technology for stress management: “Integrated assessment and correction of stress” and “Individual assessment of stress resistance”. Characterized by their application to solve practical problems in the prevention and correction of stress conditions of different types of labor.
The article presents the results of a study of the relationship of parent-child relationships teenagers and young men with the status of identity in professional identity. Revealed that the predominant identity statuses in the professional sphere in youth are achieved identity, moratorium and predestination; in adolescence — a moratorium, predestination and diffuse identity. Significant differences in the nature of the parent-child relationship in groups with statuses predestination, achieved identity, moratorium and diffused identity. For teenagers and young men with low status (diffuse identity, predestination) is characterized by the experience of the integrity of the relationship with the family in direct command of a parent and low autonomy of children. Adolescents with the status of the moratorium relationships with parents are characterized by a high level of autonomy and differentiation from the parental home often combined with high conflict and confrontation. Integration with family at a sufficiently high autonomy, respect the opinions of parents of typical teenagers and young men with the status of achieved identity. The gender specificity, reflecting the different roles of the mother and father in the formation of identity among girls and boys is revealed. The results show the decisive role of the father in the formation of identity statuses for both gender groups.
This study focuses on the perception of own career on the stage of its completion. Respondents: 30 women and men at the age from 52 to 67 years, professionals in different fields of professional activities. Research methods: interviewing, questionnaires, more options for methods of “Ranking of life values” and “Incomplete sentences”. The resulting materials were subjected to qualitative thematic analysis. The main priorities of respondents in this age group, the strategy and motivation of their professional conduct, resources for employment, and requests for psychological assistance are identified. External and internal factors influencing the formation of strategy of behavior in retirement are established. The material characterizing the image of career in the final stage can be used in psychological consulting practice.
The phenomenon of presence is the subjective sense of realistic interaction with the virtual environment. Presence is an important factor in the effectiveness of the use of virtual reality systems. On the occurrence and severity of presence phenomenon influenced by both technological and psychological factors, including cognitive control. Special influence on the emergence of the phenomenon of presence can have a system of monitoring and correction of errors associated with detection and neutralization of differences between expected and actual results of the cognitive activities. It examined the extent to which the effectiveness of monitoring and error correction (estimated through the effects of slowing down after an error and adapt to the conflict) is related to the aspects of the presence phenomenon. For high-immersive (CAVE) and lowimmersive (standard display) environments, it was shown that (1) efficient error correction prevents the negative physical effects associated with the working in a virtual environment, and (2) effective detection of cognitive conflicts prevent the emergence of the phenomenon of presence through detecting unnatural virtual scenario. In low-immersive environment conflict detection also prevented the formation of emotional involvement in a virtual scenario.
The article discusses the main ideas and provisions of the phenomenological-hermeneutic approach to professional development as opposed objectivism psycho-diagnostic methods (tests) and formative approaches. The principle of subjectivity/authorship and moral relationship to ongoing activities are introduces. Available psycho-technics guides and supports the efforts of the “adept” (people who chose the field of their future professional activity) on personal relation to the objectives and the course of his professional development.
Keywords: phenomenological approach;
personal and professional self-determination;
problematization of myself;
the principle of subjectivity (authorship);
Available Online: 15.11.2016
The article presents the results of a study of ideas about life success of teenagers. The sample of our study consisted of 500 students of 10-11 classes of the Moscow schools and gymnasiums. The greatest attention is paid to the analysis of success in the profession on the implementation of subjects of projective techniques. The analysis of examples of successful people has allowed highlighting the most significant areas of professional activity, as well as basic assessment criteria of success. So, the most popular examples of successful people for teenagers are the businessmen who have earned the status with the development of computer technologies, representatives of show-business and politics. Analysis of representations of teenagers about their future in 15 years allowed identifying criteria that are most important for the adolescents in the assessment of the future success of their professional activities. Gender differences in perceptions of professional and life success are analyzed.
The article discusses the possibility of using the subjective semantics as a basis for the proposed E.A. Klimov classification of occupations based on the differentiation of working relations of man to the objects of the world. In the scientific school of E.Yu. Artemieva this classification is understood as a typology of a replacement reality, which is revealed through the ways of free descriptions of objects and metaphorical interpretation of semantic differential scales. Correlation of semantics with a professional affiliation will allow us to predict the degree of conformity of man to the world of professions.
18 September 2016 90-m to year of life after heavy illness died Nina Nikolaevna Bogomolova — our colleague, friend and mentor, honored scientist of Moscow University, senior researcher at the social psychology chair of psychology Department (1973-2015), candidate of historical Sciences.
Available Online: 20.09.2016
In this paper the author considers the state arising when a man perceives and remembers the information presented during night sleep (this educational method is called hypnopedia). On the basis of the analysis of hypnopedical researches' results it is proved, that a student forms the new kind of sleep — hypnopedical sleep (it appears on stages 1 and 2 of slow-wave sleep): this kind of sleep has new functions (perceptual and mnestic), new time borders (the appropriate conditioned reflexes of falling asleep and awakening on certain time and on presentation of the information are produced) and transformed neurophysiological basis (an alpha-rhythm appears). Hypnopedical sleep as altered state of consciousness can be considered as analogue of the higher mental function because of it has social origin, are voluntary (it is formed not spontaneously, but intensionaly and directedly) and are mediated by such psycholgical tools as preliminary created readiness to perceive and memorize the information.
Psychosemantic approach is most in demand when it comes to research collective representations, allowing to identify the underlying attitudes and stereotypes that are poorly reflected upon, or hidden because of social undesirability, and therefore difficult to diagnose. Political leaders’ perception is just such an example. The article deals with a number of images of contemporary political leaders and historical figures who have played at one time a significant role in world politics in the student audience perceptions of South Korea. Psychosemantic author’s technique “The image of a political leader” was used to obtain empirical data. 107 subjects (females and males) took part in the survey. The study included the construction of multi-dimensional semantic spaces, projecting the operational model of categorical perception structures of political leaders. For data analysis methods of multivariate statistics were used (principal component analysis and discriminant analysis).
The article characterizes the scientific activity of B. M. Teplov, one of the largest Russian psychologists of the XX century, the founder of four scientific schools in Russian psychology. Identifies the key stages of his life and creativity, emphasizes his fundamental contribution to the development of such areas of psychology as the psychology of abilities, differential psychophysiology, military psychology, history of psychology, methodology of anthropology. Special attention is paid to historical-methodological and scientific-pedagogical activity of B. M. Teplov, who made a significant contribution to the development of psychological knowledge and University education in the country, as well as training at MSU psychologists of the highest qualification.
The step-by-step concretization of a basic abstract system S–O has been done in the article. The main phenomena of team labor were identified through this process and basic forms of team work integration such as organization culture, exchange relationships, procedural and distributive justices as well as integration by labor objects were disclosed. The full range of ergatic systems’ forms was exposed as result of concept modeling. The ergatic system model has shown sufficient logical base for integration of subjects of ergonomics and organizational psychology. It also demonstrates the full opportunities of activity approach as general theory for wide scope of humanitarian sciences.
Limited applicability of stochastics and comparing it with the new methods of multidimensional phase space were showed. Quantitative measures of the parameters are quasi-attractors for evaluation of chaotic dynamics on the example of the little finger abductor muscle. Method of multidimensional phase space carried out the study and modeling of complex biological objects (complexity). The state of the neuromuscular system is studied in two modes: a weak muscle tension and strong, almost the maximum force. Used quasi-attractors volumes of multidimensional phase spaces, which provide the identification of real changes in the parameters of the functional state with weak muscles (F1=5 daN) and strong (F2=10 daN) static stress. Analysis of the timebase signal x1(t) obtained with myograph, and autocorrelation functions A(t) signal showed their unrepeatability. Comparative analysis of the biomechanical system is made on the basis of registration of quasi-attractor’s volume, as well as on the basis of analysis of the Shannon’s entropy E. Volume of quasi-attractor’s movements x1(t) è x2(t)=dx1/dt at low load is slightly less than similar amounts of displacement of vector (õ1, õ2)Ò under a heavy load of musculus abductor digiti mini. The values ??of the Shannon entropy under a heavy load are statistically unchanged. Values of the Shannon entropy under heavy load, not statistically vary on the advisability of entropy approach in the assessment of muscular efforts and the impossibility of application of the theorem of Glansdorff—Prigogine (thermodynamics of nonequilibrium systems) in psychophysiological research. Overall, restricting the use of methods of stochastics and the possibility of using the method of multidimensional phase spaces, have been demonstrated in the Eskov—Zinchenko effect.
The paper analyzes the emergence of the concept of motive in Alexey N. Leontiev’s early writings and its correspondence to Kurt Lewin’s ideas and to the distinction of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation and the concept of the continuum of regulation in the present day self-determination theory of E. Deci and R. Ryan. The distinctions of extrinsic motivation based on reward and punishment versus “natural teleology” in K. Lewin’s works and of (extrinsic) motive versus interest in early A. N. Leontiev’s texts are explicated. The relationships between motive, goal, and personal meaning in the structure of activity regulation are analyzed. The author introduces the concept of quality of motivation referring to the degree of correspondence between motivation and one’s needs and authentic Self at large; the complementarity of activity theory approach and self-determination theory as regards the quality of motivation issue is highlighted.
The discussion of crucial problems of psychophysiology and natural sciences is presented, in general: are there any recurrences of measured values of psychophysiological parameters (functions) of a person. It is shown that it is impossible to obtain arbitrarily a repetition of samples for tremor and electromyogram (when trying to maintain static muscular tension), statistical distribution function of samples f(x) is continuously changing. This dynamics is typical for tremor (conditionally involuntary movement) and electromyogram when the higher nervous activity of individual oversees the muscular effort. The involuntary movement (tremor) shows the number of coincidence of electromyogram samples (at unrestricted muscular tension) k, which is similar to such in the matrices of pairwise comparisons of tremor samples. Shannon’s entropy in this case does not change significantly.
The paper presents the analysis of developmental changes in executive functions in early schoolchildren. 117 first-graders (7.62±0.45 y.o.) 86 third-graders (9.64±0.4 y.o.) participated in the study. Qualitative neuropsychological assessment and computerbased tests were used to evaluate the development of executive functions. The comparison of results in first and third graters reveals a significant improvement of temporal characteristics and accuracy of performance of the tests. The results may be evidence of the significant development of executive functions in the primary school age. In addition it is shown that the results of neuropsychological assessment and computer methods may be used as reliable predictors of learning disabilities
Article presents results of empirical study focused on cultural differences in preferences of conflict interaction tactics in conflicts with high power and equal partner, in interpersonal and business relations. Hypotheses: Characteristics of conflict situation (type of relations, differences in social status, content of conflict) influence on manifestation of cultural differences in conflict interaction. Sample: 125 Dutch students (mean age: 21.62), 146 Russian students (mean age: 20.15). Method: “Conflict situations” (Sinelnikova, Wigboldus). Participants were presented with conflict stories in business and interpersonal context with equal and high power partners. Research has shown that characteristics of conflict situation: power distance, type of relations, content of conflict situation, influenced on manifestation of cultural differences in conflict tactics preferences). Results demonstrated that Russian students expressed their feelings and confronted more in family conflict, Dutch students – in conflicts, initiated by violation of social norms. Russians and Dutch students demonstrated equal readiness to cooperate with partner in conflict. However Dutch students preferred direct tactics, and Russian students preferred irony.
It was shown in our previous researches, that such styles of parenting, like overprotection and overexactingness, contribute to formation of three children abnormal personality types: oriented on external help, oriented on compliance of own behaviour with other people requirements and oriented on protest against such compliance. These personality types are the most important factors influencing the occurrence of parentchild problems. The present study included adults (n=54; age 18—40), who asked for psychological consultation with their personal problems. The analysis of consulting cases detected that 42 of 54 clients (78%) were educated with overprotection or overexactingness style of parenting in their childhood. These clients had the same abnormal personality types that had the children from families of psychological consultation clients with parentchild problems, educated with the same parenting style. It was shown, that abnormal personality types, formed in childhood, influenced the formation of large amount of personal problems in adulthood.
The article was written in the context of creative legacy of A.A. Leontiev (1936—2004). Responding to the scientist’s call to intensify psychological methodology work and enhance “the criticism of notions”, the author analyzes the history and development of the notion of “functional organ” in the psychology of activity. Contrary to the popular recent trend defining mentality (psyche, mind) as a functional organ of individual or soul, the author insists on defining mentality (psyche, mind) as a functional organ of activity, which corresponds rather to the spirit than to the letter of activity approach in psychology by interpretation of A.N. Leontiev School . Such understanding may help to bring psychology out of dichotomy of mechanistic and spiritualistic theories. Even L.S. Vygotsky used to note that without overcoming this barrier the normal development of psychological science and practice is impossible.
The article represented the results of the comparative study of personal characteristics of adolescents with and without experience of sexual relations. Sample: 405 students (SaintPetersburg) at the age of 14—16 years: 228 sexually active (128 boys and 100 girls) and 177 non-sexually active (100 boys and 77 girls). Used techniques: “Teenagers about parents” by L . Wasserman, I. Gorkova, E. Romycin; Multifactor personality inventory “FPI” (form B) by I. Fainberg, H. Sarg, R. Gampel; Gordon Personal Inventory; “Selfactualization test” in the adaptation of the Y. Aleshina, L. Gozman, M. Zaika, M. Croz; The testquestionnaire selfrelation by V. Stolin, “The analysis of family relations” by E. Eidemiller, V. Ustitskis and author’s questionnaire. All the adolescents with sexual relations are distinguished from nonsexually active cause of high sociability, tendency to dominance and vigor. An additional factor that provokes a sexual relationship is an emotional distance from parents.
Paper presents results of validation of the Russian version of The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire developed by R. Moss-Morris and colleagues for the diagnostic of patient’s beliefs about causes, duration, consequences, treatment of illness, and their ability to control it. The sample (N=80) included three groups of patients aged 17—26 years (mean age 20.2±2.8 years) with nonpsychotic depression within mood disorders (n=33), personality disorders (n=22) and schizotypal disorder (n=25). In order to establish the external validity of the questionnaire patients filled Beck’s Cognitive Insight Scale, Illness and TreatmentRelated Locus of Control Scale and TreatmentRelated Selfefficacy Scale . Factor validity and reliability of IPQR was demonstrated . Patients of all three groups tend to explain their illness by personality and (to a lesser extent) situational factors, to believe in the importance and effectiveness of the treatment, in their ability to control their illness. They consider illness as shortterm and not of a cyclical nature. Supporting the external validity of the questionnaire we demonstrated that beliefs about illness and its reasons correlates with results of the interview, cognitive insight, illness and treatmentrelated locus of control and treatmentrelated self-efficacy.
The Young Adults group (N=115) was chosen for the research. The qualitative data analysis has shown practically no significant correlations between selfactualization and egocentricity. Nevertheless, there were a few moderate and weak correlations between egocentricity and few selfactualization test scales what make us to consider selfactualization and egocentricity as complicated phenomena, which are connected with various factors such as labor activity, gender and age.