Background. This article considers the prediction ability (anticipation of future events) in preschool children with hearing impairment. The ability to anticipate the results of their interaction with the surrounding social world is by no means unimportant in the social adaptation of children with hearing impairment. Prediction in preschool children with hearing impairment is a rather poorly studied topic. There are studies about particular types of anticipation, such as emotional anticipation. Based on analysis of previous studies, a detailed study of the structural and functional characteristics of the prognostic ability of children with hearing impairment compared with children with neurotypical development is significant.
Objective. To learn about the ability of hearing-impaired preschoolers to anticipate future situations.
Design. The empirical study involved 50 children aged 5–7 years with hearing impairment and without developmental disabilities, attending preschool educational institutions of the Republic of Tatarstan. The following methods were used: “Ugadaika” [“Guessing Game”] (L.I. Peresleni, V.L. Podobed) and the authors' methodology “Prognostic Stories”, developed by teachers at Kazan Federal University.
Results. In children with hearing impairment, we identified ineffective methods of carrying out predictive activities, irrational forecasting strategies, forecasting difficulties in certain areas of relationships and activities, as well as problems of mastering the rules in a normative situation.
Conclusion. The study confirmed the importance of external regulation in the social life of a child with a hearing impairment, which helps the children to predict more successfully in organized activities than in free ones. The most developed relationships in children with hearing impairment are in the child – parent domain. In their own forecasting, children with hearing impairment are more characterized by a passive position; in most situations, the children pointed to other participants, most often adults, as the subjects of future events.
prediction; hearing impairment; preschool age
Background. Sex differences in the study of the cognitive domain are significant for the interpretation of data in different fields; however, the nature of the differences remains an open question. This article presents the results of a study of gender differences in cognitive performance in children of preschool and primary school age.
Objective. To study gender differences in the cognitive performance in children of preschool and primary school age.
Methods. The sample consisted of students from kindergartens and schools in Moscow (N = 301). Two versions of the Wechsler Test were used as the main instruments for diagnosing cognitive abilities: the Wechsler test for preschoolers (WPPSI-IV) and the Wechsler children's test (WISC-V). Analysis of the results used Student's t-test and a measure of the effect size (Cohen's d).
Results. The effect of gender on cognitive performance varies significantly depending on the age of the children. The most pronounced gender differences were identified among children of early preschool age: girls received significantly higher scores on the index of verbal comprehension and the general intelligence scale. In the children of middle and older preschool age, there were no statistically significant gender differences for any evaluated parameter. In the younger schoolchildren, differences between boys and girls were found in the speed of information processing and the vocabulary subtest. Girls were ahead of boys in completing tasks included in the information-processing speed index, while boys were better at completing the vocabulary subtest.
intelligence; gender differences; preschoolers; primary school children
Background. The study explores two main processes of perception of facial expression: analytical (perception based on individual facial features) and holistic (holistic and non-additive perception of all features). The relative contribution of each process to facial expression recognition is still an open question.
Objective. To identify the role of holistic and analytical mechanisms in the process of facial expression recognition.
Methods. A method was developed and tested for studying analytical and holistic processes in the task of evaluating subjective differences of expressions, using composite and inverted facial images. A distinctive feature of the work is the use of a multi-dimensional scaling method, by which a judgment of the contribution of holistic and analytical processes to the perception of facial expressions is based on the analysis of the subjective space of the similarity of expressions obtained when presenting upright and inverted faces.
Results. It was shown, first, that when perceiving upright faces, a characteristic clustering of expressions is observed in the subjective space of similarities of expression, which we interpret as a predominance of holistic processes; second, by inversion of the face, there is a change in the spatial configuration of expressions that may reflect a strengthening of analytical processes; in general, the method of multidimensional scaling has proven its effectiveness in solving the problem of the relation between holistic and analytical processes in recognition of facial expressions.
Conclusion. The analysis of subjective spaces of the similarity of emotional faces is productive for the study of the ratio of analytical and holistic processes in the recognition of facial expressions.
facial expression recognition; basic and composite facial expressions; analytical and holistic processes; inversion effect; multi-dimensional scaling; diagnostic features
Relevance. The term “family pain” is used in family psychotherapy to refer to the emotional state of dysfunctional family members. Research on this phenomenon in dysfunctional alcoholic families can expand the understanding of the family system and allow us to formulate the goals of psychotherapy with such families.
Objective. To investigate the “family pain” experienced by adult children of alcoholics.
Methods. The sample consisted of 52 people who were in a recovery program for adult children of alcoholics (ACA), and 50 controls. We implemented a phenomenological analysis of ACA groups, a content analysis of images of “family pain”, and factor analysis of the characteristics of “family pain”.
Results. The study showed significant differences between the images of “family pain” experienced by adults who were raised and still live in alcoholic families, by those whose parents were alcoholics and had died by the time of the survey, and by those whose parents were not alcoholics. People who live with their alcoholic parents describe “family pain” as a familiar, long process with effects on the whole family. The experience of “family pain” includes anger, shame, and self-pity. People whose parents were alcoholics and have died describe “family pain” as a feeling of guilt towards their parents and a process of experiencing their parents’ death. The control group had difficulty describing “family pain”, or described it as a process of experiencing their parents’ death.
Conclusions. Representations of “family pain” are associated with the subjective meaning of family dysfunction for the participant and the experience of negative emotions in the family.
Twelve-Step rehabilitation program; alcoholism; dysfunctional family; family pain; guilt
Relevance. The spread of coronavirus infection is accompanied by the dissemination of information messages in the form of radical beliefsaffecting people’s behaviour.
The aim of the study was to reveal the relationship between beliefs about coronavirus and its treatment, magical thinking, anxiety and the protective behaviour against to the pandemic. Methods. 402 adults aged 18–64 years old filled checklist including beliefs about causes, manifestations, consequences and control of the pandemic, Illness and Treatment Locus of Control Scale, Treatment Self-Efficacy Scale, Magical Ideation Scale as well as scales measuring anxiety and protective behaviour in pandemic and monitoringof information about coronavirus.
Results. Factor analysis revealed three groups of radical beliefs about coronavirus: negligence as the cause of the occurrence and spread of coronavirus, a particular meaning of morbidity and negative consequences of the pandemic.
Conclusion. Belief inthe negligence as a cause of coronavirus was more typical for people with an intrinsic locus of causes of the causes of illness but extrinsic locus of control of treatment and for those who were prone to protective behaviour in the pandemic. Belief about the particular meaning of coronavirus was associated with the magical thinking, the intrinsic locus of control of the causes of illness, less anxiety about infection and poorer compliance with self-isolation. Radical beliefs about the consequences of the pandemic were related to more frequent monitoring of the information about the pandemic, extrinsic locus of control of treatment but intrinsic locus of control of causes of illness and a pronounced anxiety regarding future negative consequences of the pandemic.
We present the results of an empirical study of the relationship between self-assessment of creative abilities, originality of creativity (verbal and social) and values. The relevance of the research is related to the demand for creativity as an important competence in the labor market. The ambiguity of the relationship between different types of creativity and self-assessment of creativity, as well as the discrepancy between the results of diagnostics of creative potential using various methods, actualizes the problem of realizing creative potential.
The aim of the work was to study the relationship between different types of creativity, self-assessment of creativity and values, as well as to identify the ratio of creativity indicators diagnosed using the Real Word Divergent Task (RWDT) method and tasks for verbal creativity.
The study involved adolescents aged 15–16 years (N = 50; 26 – men) – students of one of Moscow school. The following methods were used: “Self-assessment of creative abilities” (E. Tunik), tasks on verbal creativity and creativity in social interaction of positive and negative connotations of RWDT, Portrait value questionnaire of Sh. Schwartz.
According to the results, originality is higher in tasks for verbal creativity compared to situations in social interaction; originality in situations of lies and prosocial situations in social interaction significantly correlate; there is no correlation between self-esteem of imagination and creativity indicators measured using the RWDT method and tasks for verbal creativity; self-esteem of creative abilities has a positive relationship with the highest value of “Openness to change”; the predictor of self-esteem of imagination is the value of “Independence of thought”. The results confirmed the hypotheses about specificity of creativity, about the absence of a link between creativity measured as self-report and objective methods; about the presence of a direct link between the highest values of “Openness to change” and the components of creativity measured by self-report, and did not confirm assumption about the absence of a direct link between originality in prosocial situations and situations with negative connotations.
Conclusions are made that 1) creativity is specific in various areas, 2) creativity in situations of lies and prosocial situations in social interaction is a single construct; 3) self-esteem of imagination is not associated with divergent thinking, measured using the RWDT method and tasks for verbal creativity; 4) high self-esteem of imagination is mediated by the motivational goal of thinking creatively, having original ideas, learning new things and phenomena.
creativity; self-assessment of creativity; imagination; values; diagnostics of creativity; Real Word Divergent Task
Relevance. The study of the self-motion (“vection”) illusion is an important task for modern psychology and neuroscience due to the widespread use of virtual reality systems. The study of psychophysiological mechanisms of this phenomenon has particular importance as an example of intersensory interactions.
Objective. To study the psychophysiological mechanisms of the self-motion illusion in a virtual reality system using electroencephalography.
Methodology. Eleven healthy subjects took part in the experiment. The stimulation was a virtual opto-kinetic drum that rotated clockwise and counterclockwise around a vertical axis with angular velocities of 30, 45 and 60 angular deg/s. The duration of each rotation was 60 seconds. The subjects were presented with 18 rotations; there was a series with instructions for free viewing of the visual scene (3 speeds × 2 directions × 2 repetitions) and a series with instructions to fix the gaze in the center of the virtual scene (3 speeds ×2 directions × 1 repetition). After each rotation, the subjects filled out the “Simulator Sickness Questionnaire” and evaluated the intensity of the illusion on a 10-point scale. Stimulation was presented in the HTC Vive virtual reality helmet. Electroencephalogram recording during the observation of cylinder rotations was performed using Mitsar-EEG-10/70-201.
Results. Significant differences were found in the intensity of the illusion, the total score on the questionnaire, and the power of the alpha rhythm in the parietal zones, depending on the speed of rotation. The higher the rotational speed, the greater the values of these dependent variables. Large values for beta-rhythm power in the occipital areas were found in the series with fixed eyes, in the subjects with high values for the intensity of the illusion.
Conclusions. Differences were shown in the bioelectrical activity of the brain during the experience of the self-motion illusion, related to mechanisms of visual-vestibular integration and greater attention to the performance of the motor task of gaze fixation.
Background. This study examined a set of personality traits related to self-control or willpower, (WP), and how self-ratings of these self-control traits are influenced by the cognitive constructs of action (versus state) orientation and meaningfulness.
Design. The subjects were 943 university students, aged 17–29 (M = 19.5 years), who volunteered to complete J. Kuhl's (1996) Action-State Orientation (ASO) scale, a Russian adaptation of the Purpose In Life test (PIL) as a measure of meaningfulness and sense-making capacity, and self-ratings of self-control traits, such as “persistence”, “decisiveness”, and “self-discipline” that produced an aggregate measure of WP and four willpower factors reflecting (1) emotional regulation, (2) commitment to action, (3) energy, and (4) execution.
Results. State-oriented ineffective sense-makers (those who scored low on both ASO and PIL) rated themselves the lowest on WP. Conversely, action-oriented effective sense-makers (high scorers on both ASO and PIL) produced the highest WP self-ratings. Mediator-modelling regression analyses showed ASO and PIL to be predictive of self-rated WP – both independently, and by mediating each other’s influence on aggregate WP ratings. However, the predictive power of PIL was substantially higher than that of ASO, and the overall pattern of prediction varied across the four willpower sub-factors.
Conclusion. Our results confirm the role of sense-making as a key mechanism of volitional regulaiton, and its interactions with cognitive resources such as action-orientation dispositions captured by ASO.
Relevance. It is traditional for socio-psychological research to study a large social group as a subject of social representations, rather than experiences — in other words, in existing studies, attention is paid mainly to the cognitive component of the “group response” to certain social events. T.G. Stefanenko argued that the socio-psychological approach to the study of changes in society should include an analysis of not only the processes of social cognition regarding newly emerged or transformed social objects, but also emotional reactions, unconscious expectations, and fears caused by changes, general feelings and experiences. This position involves the inclusion of new categories in the conceptual apparatus of psychological knowledge, as well as clarifying the content of existing categories. In this case, we are talking about such a category as collective experiences.
Objective. Description of the theoretical and empirical problems that T.G. Stefanenko was directly involved with in the research project “Perezhivanie (experiencing) Social Problems with Representatives of Various Social Groups of Modern Russian Society” (Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation, 2012-2014).
Methods. Review and analysis of research on the study of perezhivanie, collective perezhivanie,and social emotions.
Results. The basic approaches to the study of perezhivanie, collective perezhivanie,and social emotions in Russian and Western psychological literature are considered. The concept of “collective perezhivanie” is compared with the category of “perezhivanie” developed in Russian general psychology, as well as the construct “collective (social) emotions” developed in Western social psychology. The results of an international cross-cultural study of social emotions (guilt, shame, regret, embarrassment, etc.) in which T.G. Stefanenko took part are briefly described.
Conclusion. Despite methodological difficulties and the lack of unity in the conceptualization of collective perezhivanie,the study of social perezhivanieand emotions seems to be a fruitful approach to empirical socio-psychological studies of the characteristics of perception and interpretation of various social processes at the level of everyday consciousness
Background. According to modern empirical data, unconsciously processed information can have a significant impact on human behavior in all spheres of activity. Information about the unconscious information processing is fragmented and often contradictory. For the study of implicit learning different approaches are traditionally used, but none of them are effective for the clear results about the consciousness and abstractness degree of the knowledge obtained. We could more carefully inquire into the matter of unconscious knowledge and its influence on the cognitive problems solving with information about implicit learning of simple rules. This methodology makes it possible to apply more strong criteria for explicit knowledge and assumes purer experimental effects of implicit learning.
Objective. To consider and analyze the experience of use experimental techniques with simple regularities acquisition in the studies of implicit learning.
Methods. Review and analysis of studies using simple regularities in the field of implicit learning.
Results. In the article researches within the experimental paradigms "invariant learning" and "hidden covariation detection" are considered. The most significant experiments, their results and the criticism has led to an improvement of experimental procedures are presented. The problems of using different types of tasks in the training and test stages are described. The main possibilities and limitations of using these paradigms for revealing the effect of implicit learning are outlined. Further perspectives for the application of these techniques are considered. But one needs for a more rigorous approach to measuring the level of awareness.
Conclusion.Experimental paradigms with simple regularities acquisition may be promising for the study of implicit association learning mechanisms.
Relevance. The article discusses the relationship between the development of joint (shared) attention of a child with an adult, and the social and cognitive development of the child. Based on previous studies of typically developing children that demonstrate their participation and responsiveness to fundamental social characteristics, it is significant to identify manifestations of atypical joint attention when a child does not register which object (event) or which aspects of this object (event) are the focus of an interlocutor's attention. The question of which aspects of joint attention are related to the normative development of the child makes this relevant for comparing groups with different forms of atypical development. For the study, the main indicator of understanding the intentions of the other in the direction of view was used, as one of the aspects of joint attention.
Objective. To compare the development of social cognition and joint attention among typically developing children and children with various forms of atypical development in order to identify the correlation between the theory of mind and cognitive lesion.
Methods. In a sample of preschool children with typical development and of those with mental retardation, hearing impairment, speech impairment, or visual impairment (N = 90), the following methods were used to evaluate the children's understanding of the intentions, desires, and interests of others by their behavioral manifestations: “Test for Erroneous Opinion”, “Sally-Ann”; the “What does Charlie want?” task, and others. The task was also used to assess the child’s ability to use the direction of a character’s gaze in a picture to determine the person’s intentions.
Results. We identified the “primary psychological” characteristics of the atypical development of the child, which prioritize violations of social communication. Several variations of the violation of joint attention were singled out by determining a person’s intentions by the direction of their gaze. It was shown that determining intentions by the direction of gaze is associated with the normative age formation of the child. Symptoms of deficiency in this skill vary depending on the specifics of the child’s atypical development.
Conclusions. Secondary deviations in the development of social cognition are specific to a particular primary defect. The limited inflow of information in the event of a violation of the analyzer creates unusual conditions in the children’s accumulation of the experience of social interaction that is necessary to form a mental model.
attention; joint attention; Social cognition; age development; preschool age; theory of mind; mental model; mental retardation; autistic disorders; children with hearing impairments (deaf and hard-of-hearing)
Relevance. In occupations with high demands for resistance to stress, the reliability of conscious self-regulation is considered an important factor ensuring personnel reliability. This interdisciplinary study takes place at the intersection of general psychology, psychology of self-regulation, labor psychology, professional psychology, and extreme psychology.
Objective. To study the reliability of self-regulation as a universal and special resource for achieving goals under stressful conditions in high-risk occupations.
Methodology. Representatives of high-risk occupations – sailors (N = 139), pilots (N = 33), rescuers (N = 123) – and low-risk professions (teachers, N = 154) took part in the study. Individual differences in self-regulation and its reliability under stress were assessed by means of the Self-Regulation Profile Questionnaire (V.I. Morosanova & N.G. Kondratyuk, 2011).
Results. Self-regulation and its reliability in stressful conditions were found to be significantly greater among the high-risk professions than the low-risk ones. There were no significant differences in self-regulation reliability between the different groups of high-risk professionals.Using one-way ANOVA and Cohen’s effect size measures, differences in self-regulation variables were found between experts and novices for different professional groups. Among sailors and pilots, significant differences were found between experts and novices only for one variable: reliability of self-regulation. Quite the opposite result was obtained for the teachers: Experts differ significantly from novices in all self-regulation parameters except for reliability of self-regulation.
Conclusion. The study substantiated the view that reliability of self-regulation is a universal and special regulatory resource for professional goal achievement. The research results allow us to conclude that in high-risk occupations, reliability of self-regulation may serve as a professional resource ensuring efficiency, faultless operation, and safety.
Relevance. Studies of Quality of Life (QOL) are among the most topical concerns for both psychological and medical research. Although there are many studies abroad, very few have been done in Russia, and with regard to QOL in relation to vision problems they are practically non-existent.
To develop a Russian-language questionnaire for QOL in relation to vision disorders and the results of their treatment.
To measure the relationship among a priori subjective estimations of visual function, expectations of treatment results, and estimations of treatment effects.
Method. A pilot investigation was conducted using a questionnaire that we devised for QOL in relation to vision impairment. It included three informational blocks: The first was devoted to a priori estimations of visual problems; the second integrated the patient’s expectations concerning different effects of treatment, and the last estimated the treatment results. Nineteen patients with keratoconus took part in the research.
Results.The diagnostic value of the method we developed was empirically confirmed. Ways to fine-tune it to the level of a standardized questionnaire were identified. The comparisons among a priori subjective estimations of visual function, expectations of treatment results, and estimations of treatment effects make it possible to describe the dynamics of QOL. It was shown that subjective estimations of vision are nor related to the objective quality of vision and are probably determined by personality characteristics. Respondents’ treatment results expectations were found to be quite generalized. There are some differences between expectations and estimations of treatment effects: The respondents usually a priori overvalued the instrumental results of the treatment and underestimated the personality-oriented ones.
The questionnaire could be used for QOL investigations. This method could be widely used after appropriate standardization procedures are introduced.
Subjective estimations of visual function are not related to the objective quality of vision and are probably determined by personality characteristics.
Among the most significant effects of treatment, even though underestimated a priori by the patients, concerned the following aspects of QOL: a positive future-time perspective, life planning, emotional status, and self-conception.
quality of life; visual function; subjective estimations; objective treatment results; quality of life development
Relevance. Research into the factors determining attraction between people is the most generally accepted paradigm in modern social psychology. The principal innovation of this study is its differentiation of the factor of the similarity of attitudes (both positive and negative), which was not introduced in previous works, either theoretical or empirical. At the same time, it seems apparent that “similarity of attitudes” is too global a characterization and requires further discrimination. Distinguishing between positive and negative attitudes makes obvious empirical sense: To what extent is similarity in some negative attitudes more important than in positive ones?
Objective. To determine the impact of coinciding negative and positive attitudes on attraction to strangers in women.
Methods. The study involved two stages. The sample at the first stage comprised 162 women, at the second there were 47; the average age of the participants was 19 years. The main methodological technique was a modified version of D. Byrne’s “fake stranger”. Statistical processing of the data included one-way analysis of variance and subsequent assessment of the significance of the differences in the dynamics of the attraction obtained by introducing additional information in the form of positive and negative attitudes corresponding to respondents' own attitudes.
Results. The introduction of additional information about attitudes that coincide with those of the respondent had a significant impact on attraction. The differences between the coincidence of the so-called positive and negative attitudes were analyzed. The authors propose a number of interpretations of the results in line with concepts relevant to modern socio-psychological science, relating to various theoretical orientations (psychoanalysis, cognitivism, interactionism, etc.).
Conclusion. In the case of coinciding negative attitudes, the increase of the resulting attraction to the object is more significant than in the case of coinciding positive attitudes.
emotional relations; attraction; attraction factors; social attitudes; positive and negative attitudes
Relevance. The study of the "pole" of a group as an object is important for a more complete understanding of the patterns of the group’s development. Information about the incompleteness and impermanence of the subjective manifestation of a group has not yet been considered from the standpoint of different forms of its function as an object. Understanding of the essence of groups that have not developed subjective potential is limited.
Objective. To develop an appropriate system-subject approach to the theoretical foundations of the study of the group as an object.
Method. Theoretical analysis of the group as an object from the standpoint of a system-subject approach.
Results. The article describes the features of the group as an object, reflecting not only internal but also external connections, the underdevelopment of various forms of activity, and moral and psychological damage to the community and its social environment. External and intra-group factors of the group as an object were considered, showing the effect of the protective mechanisms of its development. The forms of the group as an object were identified, taking into account the coverage of group life, the stability of its manifestation, and the stage of group functioning.
Conclusion. A comprehensive analysis of intra- and inter-group factors and attributes of the group as an object allows us to test whether its manifestations are signs of its immaturity or of its destruction. The stability of “objectness” as a variant of immaturity or of destruction of the group is a promising direction of study.
group as an object; immaturity of the group; destruction; determination of disintegration; intra-group alienation; social decategorization