This article is devoted to the investigation of the role, which the systemic reflection plays in the organization, initiation and direction of the process of professional becoming. Reflection is considered as the most important regulative component of personality, which opens to the human the possibility of self-regulation and self-management that allows him to be an active subject of professional becoming. We distinguish three types of reflexive processes, which support the subjective orientation of the process of professionalization and open to the specialists the opportunity to “problematize themselves”. “Problematization of oneself ” on the basis of personal preferences and meanings, which are extracted from the direct experience of prior psychotechnical work, orients the specialists regarding the future steps of professionalization. We discuss the psychotechnical tools, which open the possibility of reflection for working out significant aspects of professionalism. We give self-reports of students who analyzed their professional possibilities by the proposed psychotechnical means.
This article reports the results of empirical research, dedicated to the features of the relationship between perceived corporate culture and employee’s organizational identification. The influence and the nature (a moderator or a mediator) of the variable “person-organization fit” were studied. Participants were 92 employees of for-profit companies. The data was mathematically processed using a correlation analysis and a partial correlation analysis. The data indicate that the person-organization fit (as a moderator) influenced the relationship between perceived corporate culture of open paradigm and organizational identification. Thus, the person-organization fit is an intermediate variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation. This suggests that the more employees believe that his values fit the organizational ones, which characterize the open paradigm, the more he will identify with it. It may be assumed that the revealed relationship is bilateral, because, probably, these two variables determine each other. A further perspective of this research area is to clarify the obtained findings and to check other variables, which can influence given interrelation.
In this study we tested the hypothesis about advantage of academic motivation profile with dominating intrinsic motivation over another profile with equally high intrinsic, self-esteem and controlled types of motivation (and low level of amotivation). Latent class analysis confirmed the suggestion that these two profiles are most typical in university students. Students with high and dominating intrinsic motivation showed highest curiosity, consistency of interests, perceived academic control and academic achievements but didn’t differ from students with high controlled motivation by the perseverance of effort that was high in both types. Generally the results show that high extrinsic controlled motivation is a disadvantageous factor that decreases student motivational potential. The results are discussed from the point of view of self-determination theory and need model of motivation.
Development and state of the art of psychological studies related to the Internet mediation are analyzed. Current tendencies and prospects of such studies are thoroughly discussed. Among these studies such parameters as distribution, reputational leveling and anonymity need to be specially mentioned. Dispersion or distant collaboration between almost or totally unfamiliar people is related to attempts to state an empirical quotient C, or collective intelligence for small groups. Such quotient is believed to be relatively disconnected to the individual IQs of the group participants. While such attempts lack theoretical base, they are characteristic for applied psychological studies. For bloggers, networkers or videogame players reputational leveling means extension of their reputations, namely the level gained in a videogame, or credibility in the communities of users of multiple Web services. Reputational leveling may be the result of real achievements or of well-organized self-presentations. In the cyberspace there is only partial anonymity, as it is seen in the field of cybersecurity and struggle against cybercrime. A recent tendency is to mark network activity of networkers, namely their “likes” or “dislikes”. After these marks are collected, numerous Big Data methods help correlate particular samples of these marks with both socio-demographical and psychological characteristics of the users. Once this is done, targeted advertisements can be sent out. This methodology is said to be exploited recently during important election campaigns. Among the possible means of confronting such influences we should mention a phenomenon of alternative identities. Networkers were earlier found to develop and support alternative identities which partly differ from the networkers’ real-life personalities. Although alternative identities are often supported independently of the aims connected with obstruction to sending out the targeted advertisements, this phenomenon may decrease the effectiveness of any impact related to the social networks.
By: Voiskounsky A.E.;
Available Online: 16.04.2017
This article considers the possibilities of bringing together of the two psychological scientific fields: pathopsychology and social psychology. The realization of that approach will enable to expand opportunities of analyzing the irrational and destructive forms of social behaviour and registering various forms of pathological adaptation described in pathopsychology quite clearly. As a possible variant, there are notions of modern psychoanalysis about different types of personality structure which form in the course of interpersonal relationships during individual ontogeny. Within the framework of the proposed hypothesis about the possibility of employing pathopsychological explanatory constructs in relation to social-psychological phenomena, psychoanalytical model is transferred onto social relations. It discusses the possibilities of making use of the pathological phenomena (delusional formations, psychological defenses, addictions) for the interpretation of inadequate relations between a subject and society. The principal structures of personality organization correspond to different variants of social relationships.
This short article discusses innovations in training and personnel assessment associated with the implementation of gamification of computer tools for learning and assessing (psycho-diagnostics). In the theoretical part of the article the authors give an operational definition of the term “gamification”, and also discussed factors that impede successful gamification — reduces the validity of computer psycho-diagnostic methods based on the use of game elements. In an experimental-methodological part of the article describes a new brief, threeminute computer technique for the estimation of a functional state called “The spoons”. This technique is a game modification of the classic “proof-reading test”. The authors publish data on a sufficiently high reliability and validity of the new method, confirming the possibility of its use as a tool for monitoring (operational security) functional status.
Available Online: 30.12.2016
The aim of this article is to display the perspectives of synthesis of two modern branches in business consulting: social pathopsychology and beatotherapy. The integration of these branches is possible due to introduction of the new subject of psychological organizational space, which has intangible and tangible representations. Social pathopsychology and beatotherapy are used to assess unconscious aspects of psychological organizational space and to detect some crucial for organizational functioning patterns. The hypothesis states that decoding of unconscious patterns can change the following psychological characteristics of organizational space: mental features of organizational space, organizational relations and organizational actions.
The article discusses methodological potential of the concept of paradigm in psychology. The issues of paradigm’s definition, the base of psychological paradigms allocation, classification of paradigms and paradigm’s patterns of development in psychology are considered. The author offers her own view of the problem of paradigms in psychology. She analyzes the four research paradigms of psychology: gnoseological, phenomenological, activity and existential one — and emphasizes their connection with certain currents of philosophy. The features of transformations of these paradigms in their transition to applied psychology, practical psychology and psychotherapy are followed. The reasons for the coexistence and integration of different paradigms in modern psychology are analyzed.
The results of the development of a new computer guidance method for senior schoolchildren on the basis of “Formulas of the profession” (E.A. Klimov) and a modern scheme for the analysis of professions (N.S. Pryazhnikov) are presented. The main stages of obtaining expert estimates are shown, which made it possible to correlate the components of professional activity with the official list of enlarged specialties of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. The advantage of 3-level grades of schoolchildren (“I want”, “I can now” and “could in the future”) is considered before the traditional assessment of schoolchildren’s actual preferences. In the process of choosing a profession, the preferred characteristics of future work activity are set not in the form of direct estimates of their traditional designations (subject, purpose, means, conditions, etc.), but through paired comparisons of the main labor activities and training activities. The computer-based online testing system works with the methodology through the Web-interface on modern software platforms — Windows, Android, MacOS, iOS, Linux.
Available Online: 30.12.2016
The article presents the results of a study of professional development stages of crises in the choice of profession, vocational training, and at the initial stage of professional activity. We used the methods of a comprehensive program aimed at studying the performance of educational and professional development, the severity of the crisis experiences, personality traits and coping strategies. The sample included high school students, university students, and budding professionals. In total 1,500 people aged 15 to 28 years old. The study revealed a high prevalence of crises in all the studied stages of professional development. The content and extent of the crisis is determined by the stage of development experiences, personal resources, and social situation of development. It is shown that increasing the importance of the choice of profession stage for the subsequent stages of professional development.
Attitude to work and features of the manifestation of burnout syndrome in management activities are considered in the context of the problem of psychological provision of occupational health. The article discusses the results of an empirical study aimed at studying the characteristics of attitudes toward work in the development of the burnout syndrome in management activities, which acts as one of the key criteria for the professional health of managers. It is shown that in general, the average level of burnout syndrome is characteristic for managers, the most significant contribution to the development of which is made by such functional components as lack of help and lack of psychological support of colleagues in work, as well as problems of professional development and self-improvement. Gender differences in the development of burnout syndrome among managers are analyzed. The obtained results can be used in the development and implementation of programs for early prevention and correction of burnout of managers based on the subject-resource approach to the psychological provision of occupational health of work subjects.
The article analyzes the concepts of “Ability”, “Professional suitability”, “Professional psychological selection”, in the development and understanding of which a significant contribution was made by E.A. Klimov. Professional psychological selection is considered as a system, the systemforming factor of which is the professional suitability of a person who chooses a specific profession. The content of the concept of ability includes the motivation and experience (knowledge, skills, and abilities) of the individual, by analogy with the dynamic functional structure of personality developed by K.K. Platonov. Its own definition of the term “Abilities” is presented.
To analyze the stages of mastering professional actions, an eco-psychological model of the formation of subjectivity is used. As an initial prerequisite for the development of this model, the notion of continuum “spontaneous activity — activity in the form of an action” is used. A description is given of the seven stages of development of subjectivity as the ability to be a subject of professional action.
Proceeding from his own concept of professional creativity, the author consistently analyzes the concepts of profession and specialty, as well as professionalism, pointing to the factors that led socially and historically to changes in the world of professional activity and the corresponding changes in vocational training. On a vast array of material, it is shown that the process of professional development as the search for non-trivial ways of development of activities should become the basis of professional training in any field.
Professional communication in the jury trial is seen as communion lawyers in complex communicative space with two circuits and two foci. We analyze the communicative tasks of lawyers and describe the possible difficulties in communicating in a professional jury, as well as some results of the study of the difficulties of understanding between lawyers and jurors in the trial.
We propose an approach to the analysis of the psychological mechanism of downshifting on the basis of the model of subjective quality of life. The use of the concept subjective quality of life allows us to approach the development of a model of the psychological mechanism of downshifting and conduct on her holistic analysis of this phenomenon. The model of subjective quality of life criteria are emotional and rational life satisfaction. A necessary condition for the downshifting is a low level of emotional life satisfaction, while the level of rational life satisfaction may be at a high enough level. An important element of objective analysis of downshifting is to modify the subjective component of quality of life as human potential, which determines the rating of the downshifting of the subject his social environment.
The problem of age-psychological aspects of professional civil servant destruction is considered. The main stages of development of moral readiness of the worker for work with strong risks of professional destructions are singled out. Characteristics of “forced” and “natural” professional destruction by civil servants are given.
The article discusses the problem of responsibility in the exercise of professional self-determination in adolescence. The value of the moral values of the personality as the basis of professional self-determination and the assumption of responsibility for the choice is discussed. The personal components of responsibility are singled out - autonomy and moral character.
The article discusses the problem of understanding the construct of “employee engagement in the organization” in scientific and practical literature. It is shown that the concept of “organizational commitment”, “organizational citizenship behavior”, “organizational identification” and “work engagement” are often seen as overlapping with the construct of “employee engagement in the organization”. There is also a variety of concepts describing the relationship of the employee with the organization, which creates terminological confusion and difficulties for their practical use. It is proposed to merge the concept of “identification”, “commitment to organization” and “work engagement” in a more general notion of “involvement of employees in the organization”. Briefly describe the results of two empirical studies that partly confirm the heuristic character of this approach.
The purpose of the cycle of works — analysis of the syndromes of occupational stress, developing in the context of the implementation of the various modern types of labor, and individually-personal characteristics of the working of the human factors that determine resistance to stressful conditions of activity on the part of ensuring the success of the work safety of mental health and personal well-being. Describes two developed in the framework of structural-integrative approach to the stress analysis of a comprehensive technology for stress management: “Integrated assessment and correction of stress” and “Individual assessment of stress resistance”. Characterized by their application to solve practical problems in the prevention and correction of stress conditions of different types of labor.
The article presents the results of a study of the relationship of parent-child relationships teenagers and young men with the status of identity in professional identity. Revealed that the predominant identity statuses in the professional sphere in youth are achieved identity, moratorium and predestination; in adolescence — a moratorium, predestination and diffuse identity. Significant differences in the nature of the parent-child relationship in groups with statuses predestination, achieved identity, moratorium and diffused identity. For teenagers and young men with low status (diffuse identity, predestination) is characterized by the experience of the integrity of the relationship with the family in direct command of a parent and low autonomy of children. Adolescents with the status of the moratorium relationships with parents are characterized by a high level of autonomy and differentiation from the parental home often combined with high conflict and confrontation. Integration with family at a sufficiently high autonomy, respect the opinions of parents of typical teenagers and young men with the status of achieved identity. The gender specificity, reflecting the different roles of the mother and father in the formation of identity among girls and boys is revealed. The results show the decisive role of the father in the formation of identity statuses for both gender groups.
By: Karabanova, O. A.;
Available Online: 15.11.2016
This study focuses on the perception of own career on the stage of its completion. Respondents: 30 women and men at the age from 52 to 67 years, professionals in different fields of professional activities. Research methods: interviewing, questionnaires, more options for methods of “Ranking of life values” and “Incomplete sentences”. The resulting materials were subjected to qualitative thematic analysis. The main priorities of respondents in this age group, the strategy and motivation of their professional conduct, resources for employment, and requests for psychological assistance are identified. External and internal factors influencing the formation of strategy of behavior in retirement are established. The material characterizing the image of career in the final stage can be used in psychological consulting practice.