Relevance. Due to centennial anniversary of soviet psychology, we would like to make analysis for the history of its institutional and subject formation within the context of Russian human study evolution, including its prerequisites before revolution and after-soviet development.
Objective. Characterize briefly, within the context of reflexive science studies and art process personology, psychology development directions and institutions, role of key scholars, summarize major achievements, including unique identity of soviet psychological science.
Methods. Analysis for subject and institutional aspects of Russian psychology evolution, describing institutions where major schools were residing and where key leaders and participants fulfilled their duties.
Results. First part contains and depicts science studies and institutional approach on presenting the historical span of Russian psychology. Second part depicts evolution of institutions, leaders’ succession and interaction of schools and directions established. Final part contains generalized conclusions on development logics and achievements of soviet psychology as preconditions to further after-soviet establishment of contemporary (Russian) psychology.
Conclusions. Soviet psychology based human studies existing before revolution legitimately succeeds the preceding evolution phase and provides evident basis for further development of psychological science during after-soviet period. Soviet scholars have developed ample materialist-dialectic methodology for study of psyche, which is the system of psychological knowledge from perspective of activity approach that had quite peculiar impetus on contemporary psychology. Currently legacy of soviet psychology interacts broadly and assimilates with foreign up-to-date approaches within the context of XXI century challenges.
Relevance. The growing interest to studying foreign students and the creation of a favorable educational environment for them makes urgent to study the strategies of sociocultural adaptation of representatives of different cultures.
Objective. Identification of the coping strategies features and differences in the scales of sociocultural adaptation among foreign students, depending on their belonging to culture.
Methodology. Two questionnaires were used: the "Revised Sociocultural Adaptation Scale (SCAS-R)" (J. Wilson) and "Strategic Approach to Coping Scale - SACS" (Vodopyanova and E.S. Starchenkova). The study involved students from the CIS countries (Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, n = 65) and from China (n = 39), studying in Russian universities.
Results. Representatives of the CIS countries revealed dominance of the indirect and passive (cautious model of behavior) coping strategies. Prosocial coping strategy (seeking social support and entering into social contact) dominates among students from China. Also differences between groups on academic adaptation and the level of knowledge of the Russian language were found.
Conclusions. Representatives of the highly contextual and reactive culture (Chinese students) mostly difficult adapt to the specifics of education, the requirements of higher education and communication in the native language of the host country. The same type of culture underlies the formation of a prosocial coping strategy. Representatives of polyactive and polychronic culture (students from the CIS countries) are dominated by indirect and passive coping strategies.
Relevance. On the course of the history human development is attended by and is determined by development of sing and symbolic systems, cultural codes of different languages. Modern civilization dictates the necessity of active intercultural exchange.
Objective. Analyzing the problem of exploring the development of symbolic function being achieved as unity of affective (emotional, “personally experienced”) and cognitive (intellectual, “subjective and knowledgeable”).
Methods. Theoretical analysis of cultural typology presented by B.S. Bibler; structural and content analysis of the world image as a generalized construction of the social realm representativity in the human mind; objective and analytical approach to studying artifacts as social interaction mediated results.
Results. We substantiated the symbolic function as an individual mechanism implemented in culturally determined representation systems necessary for the emergence of interaction between individuals and for learning social implications. Studying the symbolic function presupposes analyzing those cultures where sign and symbolic means are created. Sign and symbolic means as cultural codes mediate human development and, at the same time, determine it. Signs and their systems being used in practical activity record achievements of human experience and allow creation of “cultural artifacts”.
Conclusions. The image of the world is represented in the culture, and cultural types indicate different images of the world in people belonging to those cultures. The structure of artifacts implements the function of the world image: representation of the structure, its logical links, and a set of tools for mediation in their symbolic role as well as the possible form of experiencing. Symbolic function is actively developed while learning. The content of polycultureeducation is focused learning of sign and symbolic systems’ principles creation and functioning. Instruments of activity themselves are considered as primary artifacts, and secondary artifacts are the rules of primary artifacts use.
Relevance.The growth of mental health disorders, psychological problems in modern society among different categories of the population, including representatives of different cultures and faiths and the lack of cultural development of specific approaches to understanding mental health and psychological well-being raise the problem of cultural conditionality of representations of mental health and psychological well-being in a number of important interdisciplinary problems, of high scientific and practical importance in such multinational and multicultural countries as Russia.
Objective.To examine the relationship between cultural context and mental health and psychological well-being.
Methods.Review and analysis of current research in the field of cultural conditioning of various aspects of mental health and psychological well-being.Conclusions.The analysis of the different approaches to the study of representations of mental health and psychological well-being has allowed to establish that the existing differences in ways of coping with stress, the level of stigma in seeking psychological help have cultural conditioning and do not only depend on socio-economic living conditions, but also on subjective perceptions of these phenomena, as well as ethnic and cultural identity of people in a particular society. The urgency and necessity of development of new and cultural-specific adaptation of existing diagnostic tools for comparative study of ideas about mental health and psychological well-being within one territorially united society, which is characterized by high ethnic and cultural diversity, are shown.
Available Online: 06/20/2018
Article presents results of empirical study focused on cultural differences in preferences of conflict interaction tactics in conflicts with high power and equal partner, in interpersonal and business relations. Hypotheses: Characteristics of conflict situation (type of relations, differences in social status, content of conflict) influence on manifestation of cultural differences in conflict interaction. Sample: 125 Dutch students (mean age: 21.62), 146 Russian students (mean age: 20.15). Method: “Conflict situations” (Sinelnikova, Wigboldus). Participants were presented with conflict stories in business and interpersonal context with equal and high power partners. Research has shown that characteristics of conflict situation: power distance, type of relations, content of conflict situation, influenced on manifestation of cultural differences in conflict tactics preferences). Results demonstrated that Russian students expressed their feelings and confronted more in family conflict, Dutch students – in conflicts, initiated by violation of social norms. Russians and Dutch students demonstrated equal readiness to cooperate with partner in conflict. However Dutch students preferred direct tactics, and Russian students preferred irony.
The method of intelligent processes formation by P.Ya. Galperin takes as principal a depiction of structure of activity hidden from sense but existing as objective reality. A problem of logic bases and sources as well as of the structure of mental actions is point at issue of the article. Compared are the of the philosophers’ views (Plato, Aristotle, Meister Eckhart, Hegel) and of psychologist’s (J. Piaget, L. Vygotsky, A.N. Leontiev) on the grounds of mental structures determination. Unsolved problems of mental actions determination are emphasized.
The phenomenon of cultural specificity of the types of cognition — the everyday and scientific ones — is discussed in the present work in the frame of systemic approach. The discussion highlights the features of the Russian science. The analogies between the stages of an individual act of cognition, on the one hand, and cognition process at the level of world science, on the other hand, are considered. It is assumed that the interaction between different “local” sciences takes form of the mutual CO-operation aimed at achieving of global result — the development of world science.