Relevance. Due to centennial anniversary of soviet psychology, we would like to make analysis for the history of its institutional and subject formation within the context of Russian human study evolution, including its prerequisites before revolution and after-soviet development.
Objective. Characterize briefly, within the context of reflexive science studies and art process personology, psychology development directions and institutions, role of key scholars, summarize major achievements, including unique identity of soviet psychological science.
Methods. Analysis for subject and institutional aspects of Russian psychology evolution, describing institutions where major schools were residing and where key leaders and participants fulfilled their duties.
Results. First part contains and depicts science studies and institutional approach on presenting the historical span of Russian psychology. Second part depicts evolution of institutions, leaders’ succession and interaction of schools and directions established. Final part contains generalized conclusions on development logics and achievements of soviet psychology as preconditions to further after-soviet establishment of contemporary (Russian) psychology.
Conclusions. Soviet psychology based human studies existing before revolution legitimately succeeds the preceding evolution phase and provides evident basis for further development of psychological science during after-soviet period. Soviet scholars have developed ample materialist-dialectic methodology for study of psyche, which is the system of psychological knowledge from perspective of activity approach that had quite peculiar impetus on contemporary psychology. Currently legacy of soviet psychology interacts broadly and assimilates with foreign up-to-date approaches within the context of XXI century challenges.
Relevance. Scientific and scientific-organizational activity of a world-famous psychologist A.N. Leontiev is a constant interest of specialists in the field of humanistics, methodologists and historians of psychology. In connection with the 115th anniversary of this outstanding scientist, it seems relevant to remind readers of the poorly studied aspects of his life creation.
Objective. Description of contribution А.N. Leontiev in the development of engineering-psychological, ergonomic and reflexive-acmeological problems in the 1950-1970's.
Methods. Science-research analysis (from the positions of reflexive psychology and personology), and methodological analysis.
Results. The author analyzes such aspects of the scientific heritage of A.N. Leontiev, as his fundamental research of productive thinking and scientific creativity, as well as applied developments in the field of engineering psychology and ergonomics. The fundamental contribution of the scientist to modern human studies and to the institutional construction of psychological science is shown.
Conclusions. Scientific creativity of A.N. Leontiev in the field of psychology is interdisciplinary in nature, because it synthesizes the methodological orientations of modern humanities - natural science, technology cybernetic, social and humanitarian. The crown of the enormous scientific and organizational activity of A.N. Leontiev became a large-scale institutionalization of Russian psychology, which demanded from him not less vision and intuition, intelligence and will, diplomacy and energy than his outstanding creative activity in the field of philosophy, psychology, ergonomics and pedagogy.
Relevance. The individualization of education, the rapid expansion of the sphere of digital knowledge and the risks associated with cyber-socialization put the problem of a professional psychological organization and pedagogical “accompaniment” of individual trajectories of education for children and adolescents.
Objective. Identification the invariable elements of activity to support individual learning trajectories.
Methods. Analysis of literature; synthesis of theoretical and empirical (case study) methods.
Results. According to the comparative analysis of the approaches to the mentoring organization, the structures of the activities of the tutor, the curator (facilitator), the coach, as well as the essential and formal limitations of the various approaches in solving the problems of accompanying individual learning paths identified and described. It was founds that the compared approaches have fundamentally different attitudes towards the subject of activity. Academic tutoring is more effective in modern educational environments in comparison with curatorship and coaching. The stages of accompanying the individual trajectory of learning, carried out within the framework of psychological counseling for adults, were determined empirically.
Conclusions. The acts of transformations in the structure of the activity of an academic tutor fully correlate with the stages of tutoring humanistic counseling, and can be transfer to work with children, taking into account the specifics of each particular age and personal characteristics of the pupil. A general orientation of the activity on accompanying the individual training trajectory has been develop, which can become the basis for training mentor specialists and be used in the work of tutors.
Available Online: 06/20/2018
The article is an attempt of a scientific analysis of psychological and pedagogical works and historical-methodological research by P.Ya. Galperin, who is widely known as one of the most influential domestic psychologists of the second half of the 20th century and who held a position of the professor of the Faculty of Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University. The introduction states that the fundamental works of P.Ya. Galperin had a significant impact not only on the development of a number of areas of psychological science and educational practice, but also for teaching them the basics in philosophical and psychological faculties of Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1940-1980-ies. It is noted that the developed by P.Ya. Galperin original concept and an innovative method based on fundamental philosophical grounds, and he rightfully possessed the deserved reputation of one of the largest theorists of psychological science. The following are 12 key stages of life P.Ya. Galperin. The ten main directions of his scientific and pedagogical activity are characterized. Detail reflected the development of P.Ya. Galperin and his scientific school of General and pedagogic psychology of the formation of creative thinking. Highly valued pedagogical activity of P.Ya. Galperin at Moscow University. Given the facts of the development of the heritage of P.Ya. Galperin in problem field of modern anthropology.
Keywords: Galperin P.Y.;
history of psychology;
subject of psychology;
mental and ideal acts;
stage-by-stage formation of mental acts;
By: Semionov I.N.;
Available Online: 09/10/2017
The article was written in the context of creative legacy of A.A. Leontiev (1936—2004). Responding to the scientist’s call to intensify psychological methodology work and enhance “the criticism of notions”, the author analyzes the history and development of the notion of “functional organ” in the psychology of activity. Contrary to the popular recent trend defining mentality (psyche, mind) as a functional organ of individual or soul, the author insists on defining mentality (psyche, mind) as a functional organ of activity, which corresponds rather to the spirit than to the letter of activity approach in psychology by interpretation of A.N. Leontiev School . Such understanding may help to bring psychology out of dichotomy of mechanistic and spiritualistic theories. Even L.S. Vygotsky used to note that without overcoming this barrier the normal development of psychological science and practice is impossible.
First part of the article analyzes the historical and scientific, etymological and methodological problems of psycho-reflexivity personology study self-perception and self-observation – through introspection – a man’s own Self as an integrated personality and social personality. Considered external opposition, socio-objective determination of human mental activity and its internal, reflexive sense of life, the source of which is the individual amateur I. From these positions explicated logic of perceptual psychology: the study of perception through introspection objectivity to subjectivity reflection reflexive self-perpetuating I proposed ontology of psychological reality of the inner life, where its components are incorporated such as: self-actualization, self-perception, self-knowledge, self-understanding, self-awareness, self-determination, selfactualization personality I. In the context of reflexive psychology, personology considered reflexive nature of introspection problem-conflict situations in the self-identity sphere of artistic and scientific creativity. In the second part of the article the proposed theoretical propositions are realized on empirical material reflexive psychological analysis of introspective self-life-creativity outstanding writer and thinker M.M. Zoshchenko. Given held them all his life a dramatic existential introspection M.M. Zoshchenko and corrected to reflect the semantic field of their identity, which was reflected in the development of introspective style as his artistic creativity, and social behavior of the individual. In conclusion, characterized the role of reflective dialogue as a means of enhancing introspective self-perception and self-identity I am human.
By: Semionov I.N.;
Available Online: 09/30/2015
The article discusses the possibilities of use of the most important categories and principles of the cultural activity approach in the field of health psychology. Biological and psychological understanding of health is compared in it. Besides, modern scientific definition of human health is given. Main methodological approaches to the study of person’s health are considered too. On the bases of Vygotsky’s ideas the view of health as a higher mental function (HMF) is proposed and substantiated. The contents of the concept of HMF, its connection with traditional system and level approaches are revealed. Understanding of health as HMF is compared with existing directions based on Vygotsky’s and cultural historical ideas in the field of health psychology and in clinical psychology of physicality in particular. The final part of the article is devoted to issues of occupational health. The connection of the structure, development and individual style of activity and occupational health, issues of improvement health motivation are investigated with view of activity approach. The methodological potential of the concept of health as HMF and activity approach ideas to health psychology and psychological science in general is emphasized.
The paper presents an ontological conceptualization of the phenomenon of extremity, which is considered in the context of personality transformation in the trans-ordinary world. Methodological principles and scientific logic of conceptualization are proposed and specified in the following concepts: the experience of being and non-being, personality work, meaning and behavioral personality work, positive and negative extremity, the meaning of life and the meaning of death, the nature of the construction of psychological effects of extremity — psychic trauma and personal transformation.
The method of intelligent processes formation by P.Ya. Galperin takes as principal a depiction of structure of activity hidden from sense but existing as objective reality. A problem of logic bases and sources as well as of the structure of mental actions is point at issue of the article. Compared are the of the philosophers’ views (Plato, Aristotle, Meister Eckhart, Hegel) and of psychologist’s (J. Piaget, L. Vygotsky, A.N. Leontiev) on the grounds of mental structures determination. Unsolved problems of mental actions determination are emphasized.
The article is devoted to the history and current state of the school of Alexey Nikolaevich Leontiev (1903-1979), an outstanding Russian psychologist, the first Dean of the faculty of psychology of Moscow state University who have made the most significant contribution to the creation and development of the activity approach in psychology. Considered in detail the stages of scientific biography A.N. Leontiev, the author identifies and analyzes the main provisions developed his school of “non-classical psychology”, the origins of which date back to L.S. Vygotsky. Special attention is paid to the analysis offered in the school of A. N. Leontiev solve the problems of the subject of psychology, nature of psyche as a specific mental functions, the relationship between internal and external activities, units of psychological analysis and development of the psyche. Selected as promising lines of development of General psychological ideas of the school of A. N. Leontiev.
This article presents a research made in French Rail Transport Company about professional culture. It uses the Bakhtinian concept of genre to analyze the dynamic between individual activity and professional culture in a cultural-historical perspective. At the beginning of the article, theoretical bases and concepts of the research are represented, then by means of extracts from the protocols is illustrated the idea of the development of professional culture under the effect of the individual activity as well as the development of individual activity under the effect of the professional culture.