The development of soviet psychology during Great Patriotic War is reviewed. The main areas of scientific research and practical work are scrutinized. The thesis of determinative role of fundamental research in science development is stated.
Process of generation of activity with allocation of problems which it is possible to correlate with concepts need, motive, motivation, prompting to activity is analyzed. Affirms, that generation of activity assumes presence at the subject of the behavioral problem arising at actualization of needs, at acceptance by the person of requirements of a society or under the decision of the person. The motivation is understood as mental maintenance for the process of activity generation.
The article discusses the possibilities of use of the most important categories and principles of the cultural activity approach in the field of health psychology. Biological and psychological understanding of health is compared in it. Besides, modern scientific definition of human health is given. Main methodological approaches to the study of person’s health are considered too. On the bases of Vygotsky’s ideas the view of health as a higher mental function (HMF) is proposed and substantiated. The contents of the concept of HMF, its connection with traditional system and level approaches are revealed. Understanding of health as HMF is compared with existing directions based on Vygotsky’s and cultural historical ideas in the field of health psychology and in clinical psychology of physicality in particular. The final part of the article is devoted to issues of occupational health. The connection of the structure, development and individual style of activity and occupational health, issues of improvement health motivation are investigated with view of activity approach. The methodological potential of the concept of health as HMF and activity approach ideas to health psychology and psychological science in general is emphasized.
The results of investigation the relationship between the intensity of the experience of traumatic events, post-traumatic stress and the parameters of psychological well-being in conscripts (n=123, age 18—25), passing military service in military units in Moscow and Moscow region are presented. Psychological techniques: Life Experience Questionnaire (LEQ) by J. Norbeck, I. Sarason et al. in adaptation of N.V. Tarabrina et al.; The Scale of psychological well-being by C. Ryff in adaptation of T.D. Shevelenkova, T.P. Fesenko; Symptom Check List-90-r-Revised by L.R. Derogatis et al. in adaptation of N.V. Tarabrina et al.; Mississippi scale (civilian version) by T. Keane et al. in adaptation of N.V. Tarabrina et al. The significant inverse relationship between psychological wellbeing, the intensity of PTSD and the experience of traumatic events was revealed. It is shown that intensive post-traumatic stress is associated with a variety of psychopathological symptoms: somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism. It is revealed that the feeling of autonomy prevents the development of psychopathological symptoms accompanied the post-traumatic stress, supports psychological wellbeing, but without additional resources cannot be directed to influence on the level of psychic traumatization.
The article presents the results of applying of existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality to assess the personality of the overprotecting and overexacting parents in 176 families, who visited psychological consultation. It is shown that the styles of parenting “overprotection” and “overexactingness” indicate the one-sidedness of parental position in the education of their children concerning the certain existential dichotomies. Overprotecting parent’s position is one-sided towards existential dichotomy help and autonomy. Overexacting parent’s position is one-sided simultaneously towards the three classical existential dichotomies: nature and culture, self-actualization and conventional values, determinism and self-determination. Test for assessment of interpersonal relations by Sobchik L.N. was used to identify the characteristics of interpersonal relationships progenitors with parents in childhood. M. Luscher’s test was used to identify the characteristics of parent personalities. The results of these tests allowed to suppose that such one-sided educational positions of the overprotecting and overexacting parents has been formed under the influence of “excessively interfering” educational progenitors positions, which were irrationally assigned and later reproduced in the education of their children in the form of overprotection and overexactingness. Pointed out special aspects of the educational positions of the overprotecting and overexacting parents allow us in accordance with existential criterion to conclude about the abnormality of their personality.
The results of additional analysis of previously published research are presented. The main topic of this research is stable patterns of volitional selfregulation,by the example of comparison of differences of volitional traits’ clusters and their intensity in the children behavior until 11 year-olds. Significant age-related changes in volitional sphere were demonstrated. It is shown that there are individually-typological features at early stages of formation of volitional sphere; volitional self-regulation development is a partial process; there are two ways of development of volitional traits (“harmonious” and “one-way” type). Quantity of children with “harmonious” combination of volitional traits is increase towards 2th-3th school grade and also the importance of personal forms of regulation of activity is increase to 4th class.
Along with conventional notions about the positive influence pets on the development and psychological well-being of children, an increasing number of investigations evaluate the role of pets in the life of the modern urban family more carefully. Existing contradictions can be resolved via submission on pets as integral and important parts of the entire family system: the emergence of pets in the family may be associated with the maintenance and regulation of its homeostasis. We tested this assumption in the empirical research, which objectives were: 1) identification of the association between the age of the child/ siblings and appearance pets in families; 2) correlation of the data with the stages of family life cycle. Based on the data obtained from the survey (n=658) among students, conducted among first-year students of the faculty of psychology of Moscow State University and among the clients of the veterinary surgeon in 2008—2012 (n=75), we have analyzed the dependence of the frequency of occurrence of pets, which respondents considered “family member”, on the age of child/children in the family at the time of their purchase. According our findings pets’ appearance in a family with the only child happen when the child is 7, 9, 13, 16 years old, in a family with two children it happens when the second child is 7, 9, 13 years old and (or) the first one is 12—16 years old). These peaks happen when families have normal crises, not related with the changing family structure, but with the other factors, particularly with necessity contacting with social surrounding or with strict changing demands of psychical development of the child. The peaks of appearance pets in a family which were found by us can be evidence of including pets in regulation homeostasis of family life.
Four-dimensional spherical model of emotions was built with metric multidimensional scaling method. This model simultaneously describes emotional expressions in the oral human speech (based on the samples of the word “Yes”, spoken with different expressions) and vocalizations of rhesus macaque monkeys in the human listener’s perception. Based on statistical criteria, number of dimensions in the space of the perception of emotional human speech and monkey vocalizations samples was defined to be equal to 4. Stimuli points in the space are positioned in almost equal distance from the center of the hypersphere. Model space axes were interpreted in regard to the contents of human emotions. Orientation of perception of monkey vocalization samples space axes was conducted in a formal procedure based on direct experimental data — cross-assessment of the differences between some human speech samples and all monkey vocalizations samples. As a result, all studied monkey vocalizations samples were quantitatively presented in a unified system of the characteristics, defined for human emotions, and received an anthropomorphic interpretation. Obtained results are not controversial to the data from animal behavior observation and expert analysis of their vocalizations range. We revealed the similarity between emotional expressions in human speech and monkey vocalization range, which, in turn, demonstrates the relation of human and monkey emotions.
Memorial conference dedicated to the 85th anniversary since the birth of E.D. Homskaya.
The article discusses the differences in the reactions of people in the strong stressful situations, and cultural-specific factors as the probable causes of these differences. There are examples of emergency psychological assistance to representatives of different cultural and ethnic groups on the territory of the Russian Federation (Ossetians, Altaians, Yakuts) and abroad. The article discusses the questions of professional distance, personal mental health, and professional ethics in the work of the psychologist in the area of emergency. There discusses attitudes towards death in different religions. It is concluded that culturally specific factors of human behavior in emergency situations require special attention and respect from specialists, because are the psychological resource of people who are in difficult life circumstances. Consideration of these factors is necessary to build effective strategies of psychological assistance in emergencies.
To the 70th anniversary of Elena Teodorovna Sokolova.
To the 70th anniversary of Boris Sergeevich Bratus.
To the 70th anniversary of Igor Alexandrovich Vasiliev.
To the 60th anniversary of Takhir Yusupovich Bazarov.