In the article an idea is pulled out that cause of absence of unity of psychological science is abandonment from the natural method of psychology - introspection. It becomes firmly established that self-evidence of internal experience at R. Descartes is investigation of coincidence in the introspection of gnoseology and ontology, act of knowledge and act of being. Organic, undistorting character of introspection is educed at understanding of psyche, as apperception (which will realize understanding of psyche as the definitely organized internal work, i.e. psychical determinism) guided by a mechanism. The mechanism of apperception means a presence in the psyche of initial heterogeneity, multiplicity, quasi-poly-subjectness. In this connection the problem of effective introspection is examined as a problem of effective communication of the variety-dimensional, variety-coordinate spheres of psychical apparatus of man, adequate internal transmissions of experience and adequate internal translations.
By: Semionov I.N.;
Available Online: 30.09.2015
The current paper proposes a new theory of self-observation in the context of face-to-face interview grounded in the dialogical and transactional theories of W. James, G.H. Mead, M. Bakhtin, and V. Voloshinov. The authors have embraced their dialogical and continuous notions of self and socio-ideological consciousness. In this model, consciousness (or I) is submerged in an infinite interchange of internal and external dialogues, constantly evaluating, negotiating, and internalizing immediate experiences into more stable characteristics of self (the me). We have characterized these aspects of the me in terms of utterances, broadly organized into three semiotic genres: 1) ideological-affiliative, 2) personal-affective, and 3) socio-normative. The authors argue that such genres permeate every stage of the research process, beginning with research questions and culminating in the construction of a research report.
The article presents an overview of current research aimed at exploring the development of the executive functions of preschool children. The results of numerous studies indicate that executive functions influence different components of the academic success of children. In this regard, the question of the relationship between education and degree of development of the regulatory functions is of particular relevance. The article presents examples of individual and group approaches to the formation of executive functions in preschool age. It is shown that using a variety of strategies to work with preschool children possibly significant development of executive functions in the kindergarten. Special attention is paid to computerized programs of development of arbitrariness. Significant relationships between the quality of preschool education and the development of the executive functions were not found. Cultural characteristics have a much greater influence on the formation of arbitrariness.
In the article there are the ethical principles that should guide the psychologist in working with different cultures, victims in an emergency situation. There is an attempt of comparative analysis of the main provisions of the ethical code of the Russian psychological society and the ethical code of the European Federation of psychological associations. Conclusions: 1. Psychologist helping people in the emergency area should have high qualification and special training. 2. A record of all specific duties in the emergency area contributes to aid effectiveness and maintains the occupational health specialist. 3. Knowledge of and adherence to ethical principles in working with people in the emergency area is not less important and mandatory for the psychologist than professional knowledge and skills.
To the 70th anniversary of Yury Mikhailovich Zhukov.