In the article an idea is pulled out that cause of absence of unity of psychological science is abandonment from the natural method of psychology - introspection. It becomes firmly established that self-evidence of internal experience at R. Descartes is investigation of coincidence in the introspection of gnoseology and ontology, act of knowledge and act of being. Organic, undistorting character of introspection is educed at understanding of psyche, as apperception (which will realize understanding of psyche as the definitely organized internal work, i.e. psychical determinism) guided by a mechanism. The mechanism of apperception means a presence in the psyche of initial heterogeneity, multiplicity, quasi-poly-subjectness. In this connection the problem of effective introspection is examined as a problem of effective communication of the variety-dimensional, variety-coordinate spheres of psychical apparatus of man, adequate internal transmissions of experience and adequate internal translations.
First part of the article analyzes the historical and scientific, etymological and methodological problems of psycho-reflexivity personology study self-perception and self-observation – through introspection – a man’s own Self as an integrated personality and social personality. Considered external opposition, socio-objective determination of human mental activity and its internal, reflexive sense of life, the source of which is the individual amateur I. From these positions explicated logic of perceptual psychology: the study of perception through introspection objectivity to subjectivity reflection reflexive self-perpetuating I proposed ontology of psychological reality of the inner life, where its components are incorporated such as: self-actualization, self-perception, self-knowledge, self-understanding, self-awareness, self-determination, selfactualization personality I. In the context of reflexive psychology, personology considered reflexive nature of introspection problem-conflict situations in the self-identity sphere of artistic and scientific creativity. In the second part of the article the proposed theoretical propositions are realized on empirical material reflexive psychological analysis of introspective self-life-creativity outstanding writer and thinker M.M. Zoshchenko. Given held them all his life a dramatic existential introspection M.M. Zoshchenko and corrected to reflect the semantic field of their identity, which was reflected in the development of introspective style as his artistic creativity, and social behavior of the individual. In conclusion, characterized the role of reflective dialogue as a means of enhancing introspective self-perception and self-identity I am human.
By: Semionov I.N.;
Available Online: 30.09.2015
The current paper proposes a new theory of self-observation in the context of face-to-face interview grounded in the dialogical and transactional theories of W. James, G.H. Mead, M. Bakhtin, and V. Voloshinov. The authors have embraced their dialogical and continuous notions of self and socio-ideological consciousness. In this model, consciousness (or I) is submerged in an infinite interchange of internal and external dialogues, constantly evaluating, negotiating, and internalizing immediate experiences into more stable characteristics of self (the me). We have characterized these aspects of the me in terms of utterances, broadly organized into three semiotic genres: 1) ideological-affiliative, 2) personal-affective, and 3) socio-normative. The authors argue that such genres permeate every stage of the research process, beginning with research questions and culminating in the construction of a research report.
Excerpts from the book S.V. Kravkov “Self-observation” (Moscow: Russkiy knizhnik, 1922. 176 p.). In his study, S.V. Kravkov presents arguments in favor of the need for introspection, psychology, introspection separates from reflection, analyzes the mental processes that provide the opportunity to introspection introspective discusses ways of organizing research and other theoretical methodological issues arising in connection with introspection.
The article presents an overview of current research aimed at exploring the development of the executive functions of preschool children. The results of numerous studies indicate that executive functions influence different components of the academic success of children. In this regard, the question of the relationship between education and degree of development of the regulatory functions is of particular relevance. The article presents examples of individual and group approaches to the formation of executive functions in preschool age. It is shown that using a variety of strategies to work with preschool children possibly significant development of executive functions in the kindergarten. Special attention is paid to computerized programs of development of arbitrariness. Significant relationships between the quality of preschool education and the development of the executive functions were not found. Cultural characteristics have a much greater influence on the formation of arbitrariness.
Based on the psychological analysis of Christian Hesychasm texts the paper educes specific for these religious practice types of altered states of consciousness (states of grace and states of prelest), psychic changes and emergence of appropriate phenomena. The paper explores the possibilities of cultural-activity approach using in revealing the influence of cultural and social factors that determines altered states of consciousness (including specific for religious practice states) and the possibilities of studying this effect mechanisms. Mystical religious state is considered as functional organ of ascetic’s religious activity which provides its goals and tasks implementation. The paper proves that religious world view as well as goals of religious practice and appropriate techniques of mystical religious states induction determines the characteristics and phenomenology of these states.
The article presents an empirical study of the depth of thinking - personal characteristics reflecting the process of understanding of the problem; object – the solution of problem situation with artistic content, actualizing productive thinking; goal – to identify the level of problem solving in correlation with its success. The theoretical basis – the ideas of Gestalt theory and the Matyushkin’s theory of problem situations about productive thinking and evaluation its success. The study shows that the depth of thinking reflects the levels of understanding of the sense of artistic works – from a misunderstanding to clear and explicit understanding of the sense of the work in accordance with the author’s intention. The levels are the basis for evaluating the success of problem solving. From the object of thinking the depth is determined by artistic genre: the greatest depth of thinking requires dramatic genre. There is the positive correlation of the success of the solutions for two types of problem situation with artistic content – understanding of the sense of the film and the story by fragments – with the dramatic and comedic content. There is negative correlation for the success of the solutions of problem situations of emotionally opposite genres – comic and dramatic – for two types of problem situations.
In the article there are the ethical principles that should guide the psychologist in working with different cultures, victims in an emergency situation. There is an attempt of comparative analysis of the main provisions of the ethical code of the Russian psychological society and the ethical code of the European Federation of psychological associations. Conclusions: 1. Psychologist helping people in the emergency area should have high qualification and special training. 2. A record of all specific duties in the emergency area contributes to aid effectiveness and maintains the occupational health specialist. 3. Knowledge of and adherence to ethical principles in working with people in the emergency area is not less important and mandatory for the psychologist than professional knowledge and skills.
To the 70th anniversary of Yury Mikhailovich Zhukov.