The article discusses the differences in the reactions of people in the strong stressful situations, and cultural-specific factors as the probable causes of these differences. There are examples of emergency psychological assistance to representatives of different cultural and ethnic groups on the territory of the Russian Federation (Ossetians, Altaians, Yakuts) and abroad. The article discusses the questions of professional distance, personal mental health, and professional ethics in the work of the psychologist in the area of emergency. There discusses attitudes towards death in different religions. It is concluded that culturally specific factors of human behavior in emergency situations require special attention and respect from specialists, because are the psychological resource of people who are in difficult life circumstances. Consideration of these factors is necessary to build effective strategies of psychological assistance in emergencies.