The article discusses the possibilities of use of the most important categories and principles of the cultural activity approach in the field of health psychology. Biological and psychological understanding of health is compared in it. Besides, modern scientific definition of human health is given. Main methodological approaches to the study of person’s health are considered too. On the bases of Vygotsky’s ideas the view of health as a higher mental function (HMF) is proposed and substantiated. The contents of the concept of HMF, its connection with traditional system and level approaches are revealed. Understanding of health as HMF is compared with existing directions based on Vygotsky’s and cultural historical ideas in the field of health psychology and in clinical psychology of physicality in particular. The final part of the article is devoted to issues of occupational health. The connection of the structure, development and individual style of activity and occupational health, issues of improvement health motivation are investigated with view of activity approach. The methodological potential of the concept of health as HMF and activity approach ideas to health psychology and psychological science in general is emphasized.