The article presents the overview of the basic approaches, concepts and directions in studying personality in neuropsychology. Neuropsychiatric approach is based on phenomenological description of personality disorders in patients with various brain damages. Neuropsychological studies of personality held in A.R. Luria school that are mainly present in works under E.D. Homskaya guidance, in order to experimentally study brain organization of personality suggest using structural-functional model that includes emotional, motivational and executive processes and self-awareness. Aphasiology postulates, that personality disorders are secondary to communication disabilities that occur in speech pathology. Finally, neuropsychoanalysis focuses on cerebral mechanisms of unconscious processes and personality functioning in different pathological models. The paper presents the results of the study held. With the use of neuropsychological syndrome analysis method 50 young adult male patients have been studied with pathocharacterological spectrum disorders divided in two groups: schizoid personality disorder (30 patients) and schizotypal personality disorder (20 patients). It has been established that both groups have specific cognitive disturbances that indicate frontal-parietal-thalamic connections. Lateral differences are revealed: neuropsychological symptoms that are associated with left hemisphere dysfunction are specific for schizotypal personality disorder; neurocognitive deficit that is associated with right hemisphere is specific for patients with schizoid personality disorder. Perspectives of personality neuropsychology are discussed.
The results of complex neuropsychological examination of the subjects with various pathologies of the corpus callosum (CC) conducted by the author are analyzed in the article. In the survey were used method for the study of the formation of fixed installation in haptic sphere and perceptive priming method. The goal of the study was development of one of neuropsychological factors of hemispheric interaction. Split Brain Syndrome characterized as a neuropsychological syndrome and the symptoms of higher mental functions violations in patients with various pathologies of the CC are described. The author describes the primary symptoms of hemispheric interaction violations caused by commissure pathology. Second part of the paper discusses the point of view of domestic and foreign researchers on the functional role of cerebral hemispheres, their front and rear parts in the human psyche and behavior. In the third part of the article the author describes neuropsychological factor interhemispheric interaction associated with the CC activity. This factor is a syndrome-forming with the CC pathology of various origins. It is integrative as the result of cooperation of two associative brain areas. It could be determined as the factor of formation and reproduction of behavioral acts or psyche selfdetermination factor.
The article discusses the relationship of the general psychological theory of activity and work-psychology. The achievements of labor psychology as a scientific and technical discipline that combines concrete scientific concepts and theories focused on the problem of social practice. These concepts include: approaches and methods of psychological study of professional activities, research projects psychological classification of occupations; theory of work motivation; research problems of intra-individual variability of human performance under the influence of workload, theory of functional states of the subject of work, including the correction of adverse varieties; the theory of differential and developmental psychology used in professional selection and career counseling; options for teaching about the psychology of erroneous actions used in quality management and safety; complementing studies of individual forms of labor; psychosemantic professional approach to the study of consciousness and self- work experience in the psychological study of foreign object activity as the basis of analysis of the mental processes and properties of the subject of work. As a result, the analysis concluded that the general psychological theory of activity performs in relation to the role of labor psychology philosophical and methodological framework and general scientific theory in understanding the psyche of the human subject of labor. It has the status of concrete scientific theory as applied to problems of professional development and training. Psychology of work, beyond training and development, require the development of specific scientific concepts and theories that complement general psychological theory of activity.
In the memory of Galina Mikhaylovna Andreeva.
In the memory of Evgeny Alexandrovich Klimov.