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Krotkova O.A., Danilov G.V., Kaverina M.Yu., Kuleva A.Yu., Gavrilova E.V., Enikolopova E.V. (2018). The distribution of visual attention in normal aging: the eye tracking study. Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology, 1, 3-20

Relevance. The study of adaptive brain reorganizations during normal human aging is relevant both in the social aspect and in the scientific aspect. It contributes to the development of theoretical ideas about brain providing cognitive processes.

Objective. The aim of the work is to study the mechanisms of changing the volume of visual attention during normal aging using the technology of eye-tracking.

Methods. 30 healthy subjects aged 19-30 years (11 people, younger group) and 50-81 years (19 people, older group) performed an original technique assumed the memorization of triplets of images, their recall and recognition in a series of similar, identical and new images. The memorization was accompanied by the recording of subjects’ eye movements.

Results.In the older group the narrowing of volume of visual attention was obtained. For a 10-second exposure of stimuli in the older group, only the visual information associated with central stimulus was accurately remembered. Results of the older group showed a significant predominance of recall and recognition errors of stimuli over the number of those in the younger group. The differences between the two groups were not found only for the situation of recognition of the central stimulus. In the young group there was a tendency to an asymmetric appearance of errors in relation to the left and the right triplet stimuli. The right stimuli were worse reproduced verbally, and the left ones were less well recognized. In the older group the asymmetry in the recognition and reproduction of stimuli was not detected.

Conclusions. An eye tracking data objectified the distribution of visual attention and allowed to explain the results of the subsequent reproduction and recognition of images.

Received: 02/28/2018

Accepted: 03/07/2018

Pages: 21-36

DOI: 10.11621/vsp.2018.01.21

Keywords: attention; memory; eye tracking; normal aging; interhemispheric interaction;

By: Krotkova, Оlga А.; Danilov, G.V.; Kaverina, M.Yu.; Kuleva, A.Yu.; Gavrilova, E.V.; Enikolopova, E.V.;

Available Online: 03/30/2018

Kravkov S.V.(2015).Excerpts from the book S.V. Kravkov “Self-observation”. Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology, 3, 57-64

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:463:"
<p> Excerpts from the book S.V. Kravkov “Self-observation” (Moscow: Russkiy knizhnik, 1922. 176 p.). In his study, S.V. Kravkov presents arguments in favor of the need for introspection, psychology, introspection separates from reflection, analyzes the mental processes that provide the opportunity to introspection introspective discusses ways of organizing research and other theoretical methodological issues arising in connection with introspection.</p>
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Received: 02/07/2015

Pages: 57-64

DOI: 10.11621/vsp.2015.03.57

Keywords: self-observation; introspection; psychology; experience; attention; memory; intention;

By: Kravkov, Sergey V.;

Available Online: 09/30/2015

Bogacheva N.V.(2015).Computer games and cognitive specifics of gamers (the end).Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology,1,94-103

The aim of the article is to give a brief overview of cognitive studies in computer games psychology. The researches of psychological specifics of computer gamers have become very important recently due to a great popularity of computer games among children, teenagers and adults all over the world. Numerous studies are made that show significant differences between cognitive characteristics of computer gamers and non-gamers. There are possible negative consequences (such as long-term memory decline) as well as positive ones. Computers games are shown to enhance attention, spatial cognition and cognitive control of computer gamers and participants of specially organized computer games sessions. Cognitive function can possibly be trained in computer games. Computer games experience affects processes of thinking, decision making as well as multitasking and task-switching capability. Studies of connection between cognitive styles and computer games are also reviewed.

Received: 02/05/2014

Pages: 94-103

DOI: 10.11621/vsp.2015.01.94

Keywords: spatial thinking; cyberpsychology; cognitive psychology; computer games; gamers; attention; memory; cognitive control; multitasking;

By: Bogacheva, Natalya V.;

Available Online: 03/31/2015

Bogacheva N. V. (2014).Computer games and cognitive specifics of gamers. The Moscow University Herald.Series 14.Psychology,4,120-130

The aim of the article is to give a brief overview of cognitive studies in computer games psychology. The researches of psychological specifics of computer gamers have become very important recently due to a great popularity of computer games among children, teenagers and adults all over the world. Numerous studies are made that show significant differences between cognitive characteristics of computer gamers and non-gamers. There are possible negative consequences (such as long-term memory decline) as well as positive ones. Computers games are shown to enhance attention, spatial cognition and cognitive control of computer gamers and participants of specially organized computer games sessions. Cognitive function can possibly be trained in computer games.Computer games experience affects processes of thinking, decision making as well as multitasking and task-switching capability. Studies of connection between cognitive styles and computer games are also reviewed.

Received: 02/05/2014

Pages: 120-130

Keywords: cyberpsychology; cognitive psychology; computer games; gamers; attention; memory; cognitive control; multitasking; spatial thinking;

By: Bogacheva, Natalya V.;

Available Online: 12/31/2014

Korsakova N.K.(2014).Neuropsychology of attention and Stroop Task. The Moscow University Herald.Series 14.Psychology,3,26-33

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:1479:"<p>An established link between the intellectual attention and the activity of
frontal lobes in studies of E.D. Homskaya brings forward the application of
special experimental psychological procedures. The latter are characterized by
sensitized cognitive load and address both attention and memory. A modified
version of the Stroop Task (Shilko R.S.) was employed in the present study of
intellectual attention. 50 men ranging in age from 18 to 24 years with higher
or incomplete higher education took part in the study. Among the participants
there were 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with schizophrenia in a paroxysmal
form, developed in adolescence. The patients were under medical treatment in
the Mental Health Research Center of RAMS. Comparison of intergroup results, based on the analysis of errors that were made by subjects in both groups, revealed
the features of memory and attention, specific for the cohort of patients. Unlike
the healthy subjects, schizophrenia patients revealed the types of errors which
in accordance with the system of neuropsychological qualification of errors are
typical for disturbances of functions of control and selectivity on different stages
of activity and levels of attention regulation (A.R. Luria’s qualitative assessment
scheme). There was ascertained a high sensitivity of the technique to study of
the dysfunctions of the frontal lobes and identification of various parameters
of intellectual attention.</p>";s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"html";}

Received: 05/21/2014

Pages: 26-33

Keywords: cognitive load; attention; memory; intellectual attention; frontal lobes; hypofrontality; schizophrenia; neuropsychological qualification of errors;

By: Korsakova N.K.;

Available Online: 09/30/2014

Krotkova О.А. (2014). Psychophysical problem and the hemispheric asymmetry. The Moscow University Herald.Series 14.Psychology,3,47-62

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:946:"<p>The data is analyzed in the article about structural and neurochemical brain
hemispheric asymmetry, which, together with results of neuropsychological
investigations, allow considering in a new way the problem of realization of psychic
events. Modern investigations of cellar and molecular processes in neural system
show, that the endogenous neural activity and the ways of neural self-organization
are in many respects defined by the composition of extracellar environment.
The complication of brain during phylogenies was accompanied by increasing
asymmetry of neural system at the same time the biological prerequisites for
differentiation of general “meanings” and one’s personal “sense” of the acquired
experience were forming. The asymmetric mediation of psychic events by cellar
and neurohumoral components of brain processing provided the opportunity for
appearing language and distinct subjective experiences in human.</p>";s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"html";}

Received: 06/05/2014

Pages: 47-62

Keywords: psychophysical problem; the hemispheric asymmetry; memory;

By: Krotkova, Оlga А.;

Available Online: 09/30/2014

Vartanov A.V., Kozlovskiy S.A., Skvortsova V.B., Sozinova E.V., Pirogov Yu.A., Anisimov N.V., Kupriyanov D.A.(2009). Human memory and anatomic features of the hippocampus.The Moscow University Herald. Series 14. Psychology, 4, 3-16

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:855:"<p>We examined 26 women in age 69±4.5. Neuropsychological tests analyzed
different aspects of memory: capacity, activation, executive control. MRI-volumetry
of hippocampus was performed using voxel-based morphometry. Our findings
corroborated the idea of lateral asymmetry of hippocampus: left hippocampus is
mostly involved in verbal information processing and control: right hippocampus
participates in activation processes supporting memory consolidation. Significant
correlation was found between anterior left hippocampus, time perception and
subjective duration. Posterior left hippocampus was significantly related to spatial
perception and reconstruction. Body of left hippocampus as compared with its anterior
and posterior parts was associated with activation processes necessary for information
to be memorized properly.</p>";s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"html";}

Received: 12/23/2007

Pages: 3-16

Keywords: memory; hippocampus; morphometry; neuropsychology; healthy aging;

By: Vartanov A.V.; Kozlovskiy S.A.; Skvortsova, Vasilisa B.; Sozinova, Elena V.; Pirogov, Yurii A.; Anisimov, Nikolai V.; Kupriyanov, Dmitrii A.;

Korzh N.N., Dubrovinskaya N.V. (2010). Some accents to E.N. Sokolov’s scientific biography. The Moscow University Herald. Series 14. Psychology, 4, 22-31

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:209:"<p>
    The article describes the initial period in the development of E.N. Sokolov’s ideas in psychophysiology and their further advancement in psychophysiological and neurophysiological research studies.
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Pages: 22-31

Keywords: psychophysiology; orienting reflex; neuronal model of stimulus; memory; signal detection theory; color space;

By: Korzh, N. N.; Dubrovinskaya, Nataliya V.;

Grechenko T.N.(2010).Neural mechanisms of memory in E.N. Sokolov’s works. The Moscow University Herald. Series 14. Psychology, 4, 63-78

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:674:"<p>
    In article the basic results received by E.N. Sokolov in experiences on studying of mechanisms of memory are presented. E.N. Sokolov has developed a system of experiments helped to refine the analysis of the mechanisms of memory. As experimental model of memory the habituation was used and as research methods various objective indicators of work of a brain — from EEG to intracellular potentials of single neuronswere applied. The experiments gave the possibility to formulate the concept of nervous model of stimuli and synaptic potentiation as a basis for remembering the properties of an effective signal. This article gives a brief overview of these works.
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Pages: 63-78

Keywords: memory; training; the activity of neurons;

By: Grechenko, Tatyana N.;

Palikhova T.A.(2010).Neurons and synapses of the snail Helix in E.N. Sokolov’s vector psychophysiology . Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology, 4, 149-164

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:811:"<p>
    Terrestrial snails Helix are the strategic objects for the psychophysiological studies at the scientific school united by the research strategy “Human—Neuron—Model”. E.N. Sokolov considered studies of the snails’ neurons as very meaningful for the theory of psychophysiology. The unified spherical model developed by Sokolov using vectorial approach consists from the elements similar to the nerve cells. “Simpler nervous systems” of mollusks such the snails present a possibility for experimental testing of spherical model at the level of real neurons and synapses. A task of following talk is to present the results obtained at the snails’ neurons under leadership of E.N. Sokolov and the experiments that he planned for future studies of the spherical model at the level of neurons and synapses.
</p>";s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"html";}

Pages: 149-164

Keywords: spherical model; neuron; synapse; excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP and IPSP); learning; memory plasticity; memory;

By: Palikhova, Tatyana A.;


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Moscow University Psychology Bulletin, 2007 - 2018