Relevance. The study of adaptive brain reorganizations during normal human aging is relevant both in the social aspect and in the scientific aspect. It contributes to the development of theoretical ideas about brain providing cognitive processes.
Objective. The aim of the work is to study the mechanisms of changing the volume of visual attention during normal aging using the technology of eye-tracking.
Methods. 30 healthy subjects aged 19-30 years (11 people, younger group) and 50-81 years (19 people, older group) performed an original technique assumed the memorization of triplets of images, their recall and recognition in a series of similar, identical and new images. The memorization was accompanied by the recording of subjects’ eye movements.
Results.In the older group the narrowing of volume of visual attention was obtained. For a 10-second exposure of stimuli in the older group, only the visual information associated with central stimulus was accurately remembered. Results of the older group showed a significant predominance of recall and recognition errors of stimuli over the number of those in the younger group. The differences between the two groups were not found only for the situation of recognition of the central stimulus. In the young group there was a tendency to an asymmetric appearance of errors in relation to the left and the right triplet stimuli. The right stimuli were worse reproduced verbally, and the left ones were less well recognized. In the older group the asymmetry in the recognition and reproduction of stimuli was not detected.
Conclusions. An eye tracking data objectified the distribution of visual attention and allowed to explain the results of the subsequent reproduction and recognition of images.
Available Online: 03/30/2018
In this paper was studied the attention properties of students aged 12—17 who are living in different climatic regions: the city of Surgut in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District and in rural areas of the middle Russia (Samara Region). The students of the first group live in the extreme climatic conditions of the North, aggravated by the adverse social and environmental factors of urbanization. The students of the second group live in a climatically and environmentally friendly area, with minimal impact of man-made pollution. The method used to estimate the attention of Bourdon, in the modification proposed by the Soviet psychologist P.A. Rudik. A comparative statistical analysis of the results obtained the attention properties of different groups of students are carried out. The dynamics of changes in the K, E, A indices during the test was estimated, the coefficients for the whole test and for each minute of the experiment were calculated too. Specific features of the development of student’s attention: identified according age, gender differences, differences in the development of indicators of attention of students in two different schools. Significant differences (P<0.001) in the distribution and productivity of attention were revealed, the coefficient of productivity of attention of students in Surgut was 1.15 times lower than that of their peers in the Samara region. According to new theory of chaos-selforganization it was calculated the quasiattractors volume V for three coordinates Zi (coefficient of attention concentration, attention quality, attention production). It was demonstrated the maximum volume V of quasiattractor for 14—15 year old pupils of Surgut. Very small volume V demonstrates pupils of 16—17 year of Samara district. Reducing the size of quasi-tractors demonstrates a decrease in variation range and represents a greater consolidation of the group in terms of studied parameters (large volumes of quasi-tractors in Surgut population can indicate a large variation in parameters of attention and performance).
The paper presents the analysis of developmental changes in executive functions in early schoolchildren. 117 first-graders (7.62±0.45 y.o.) 86 third-graders (9.64±0.4 y.o.) participated in the study. Qualitative neuropsychological assessment and computerbased tests were used to evaluate the development of executive functions. The comparison of results in first and third graters reveals a significant improvement of temporal characteristics and accuracy of performance of the tests. The results may be evidence of the significant development of executive functions in the primary school age. In addition it is shown that the results of neuropsychological assessment and computer methods may be used as reliable predictors of learning disabilities
The aim of the article is to give a brief overview of cognitive studies in computer games psychology. The researches of psychological specifics of computer gamers have become very important recently due to a great popularity of computer games among children, teenagers and adults all over the world. Numerous studies are made that show significant differences between cognitive characteristics of computer gamers and non-gamers. There are possible negative consequences (such as long-term memory decline) as well as positive ones. Computers games are shown to enhance attention, spatial cognition and cognitive control of computer gamers and participants of specially organized computer games sessions. Cognitive function can possibly be trained in computer games. Computer games experience affects processes of thinking, decision making as well as multitasking and task-switching capability. Studies of connection between cognitive styles and computer games are also reviewed.
The aim of the article is to give a brief overview of cognitive studies in computer games psychology. The researches of psychological specifics of computer gamers have become very important recently due to a great popularity of computer games among children, teenagers and adults all over the world. Numerous studies are made that show significant differences between cognitive characteristics of computer gamers and non-gamers. There are possible negative consequences (such as long-term memory decline) as well as positive ones. Computers games are shown to enhance attention, spatial cognition and cognitive control of computer gamers and participants of specially organized computer games sessions. Cognitive function can possibly be trained in computer games.Computer games experience affects processes of thinking, decision making as well as multitasking and task-switching capability. Studies of connection between cognitive styles and computer games are also reviewed.
An established link between the intellectual attention and the activity of frontal lobes in studies of E.D. Homskaya brings forward the application of special experimental psychological procedures. The latter are characterized by sensitized cognitive load and address both attention and memory. A modified version of the Stroop Task (Shilko R.S.) was employed in the present study of intellectual attention. 50 men ranging in age from 18 to 24 years with higher or incomplete higher education took part in the study. Among the participants there were 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with schizophrenia in a paroxysmal form, developed in adolescence. The patients were under medical treatment in the Mental Health Research Center of RAMS. Comparison of intergroup results, based on the analysis of errors that were made by subjects in both groups, revealed the features of memory and attention, specific for the cohort of patients. Unlike the healthy subjects, schizophrenia patients revealed the types of errors which in accordance with the system of neuropsychological qualification of errors are typical for disturbances of functions of control and selectivity on different stages of activity and levels of attention regulation (A.R. Luria’s qualitative assessment scheme). There was ascertained a high sensitivity of the technique to study of the dysfunctions of the frontal lobes and identification of various parameters of intellectual attention.