Relevance. The article reveals the epistemological sources of the scientific school of G.M. Andreeva, which became both the basis and the trigger for the development of social psychology at Moscow University in the second half of the ХХ and early XXI centuries.
Goal. Show the relevance and heuristics of the concept of social psychology and social cognition worked out by G.M. Andreeva. This concept makes it possible to study the affective and cognitive aspects of perception and emotion experience of various vectors of sociocultural changes and crises, including situations of frustration and deprivation of a person's living space, digitalization and mediatization of society and culture.
Methods. The methods of historical hermeneutics, historical-genetic and categorical analysis are used, reconstructing the internal logic and the main stages in the development of the scientific school of social psychology and social cognition of G.M. Andreeva, her innovative research methodology and categorical apparatus.
Results. The socio-cultural and intellectual factors of the emergence and creative development of the G.M. Andreeva’s school for more than a half of century are analyzed. The epistemological prerequisites for constructing social psychology as a scientific discipline included in the real context of the life of society and culture are revealed; the main results of the research of social cognition in conditions of social instability and uncertainty are summarizes and construed. The potential of her ideas in the intellectual context of modern psychology is shown.
Conclusions. Transdisciplinary and fundamental openness of the methodological gestalt of the new scientific school of social psychology created by G.M. Andreeva became the key to its fruitful development in the unpredictably changing space of the modern world. The original author's concept of social cognition, proposed by G.M. Andreeva, unites the disciplinary traditions (paradigms) of psychological and sociological social psychology, which diverged in the twentieth century, and makes it possible to study complex psychological phenomena, patterns and mechanisms of modern society and culture.
The history of the formation of social psychology is the history of the ongoing search for a methodologically reasonable and correct description of a person's relationship with the outside world. The changing realities of the modern world are transforming the strategies of human interaction with the reality, which creates the need to search for new languages for describing both the surrounding world itself and human interaction with it.
Objective of the study. The article is devoted to the 50th anniversary of the creation of the Department of Social Psychology of Moscow State University, one of the most important directions in the work of which was the development of methodological problems. The desire to formulate and study the fundamental questions of the psychology of human "social being" has always been a distinctive feature of the activity of the Department of Social Psychology of Moscow State University. The subject of discussion in the article is the evolution of ideas about the relationship of a person with the outside world.
Results. The content of the problematic field of modern social psychology is connected with the tasks of developing ideas of a changing context and its cognition by a person. It is shown that the interest in the context of human life is common to a number of areas of modern psychological science. In modern personality psychology an interaction with the outside world is considered as a factor of dynamic functioning and development of personality. The problem fields of other areas of modern science, in particular existential psychology, also include the study of human relations with the outside world. Thus, the principle of contextual study and interpretation of psychological phenomenology acquires the status of a general methodological principle of psychological science
The main conclusion of the analysis is the statement that socio-psychological knowledge acquires the status of fundamental knowledge for a number of areas of modern psychological science and practice, the interaction of the problematic fields of social psychology and personality psychology, their common interest in the existence of a person in the modern world, in situational, life and existential contexts, creates prospects for the formation of an integral approach to the study of personality by modern psychological science.
Funding. The study has been supported by RNF project No. 22-28-00871, а on the topic «Target and situational determinants of the process of personality self-change».
Artificial Intelligence is being actively introduced into the economic life of the country in the context of the digital economy. Features of economic decision-making based on programs based on Artificial Intelligence are becoming an extremely relevant area of research in social psychology.
Objective of the study was to identify the features of economic decision-making based on recommendations obtained using artificial intelligence.
Methods. The study took place in two stages: an interview and an experiment.
Sample. The sample of the first stage was 8 people (4 men and 4 women, age 18–45). At the second stage, the sample consisted of 289 people (48 men and 241 women), aged 18–25 years.
Results. At the first stage, possible factors of trust and distrust in Artificial Intelligence-based programs were formulated, including the context of economic decisions.
At the second stage, an experiment was conducted where participants were asked to play a stock exchange simulator. The game had the option of contacting an economic adviser. In the experimental group, the adviser was a program based on Artificial Intelligence, in the control group — a person. 5652 economic decisions of the participants were analyzed in terms of the degree of risk of these decisions.
Conclusion. 1. Using a recommendation in the process of making an economic decision has a significant impact on the willingness to risk a resource. 2. In case of agreement with the recommendation, if the source of the recommendation was a program based on Artificial Intelligence technology, then the willingness to take risks was higher. 3. Such an effect can be explained by the specifics of the situation of making an economic decision: the task is quite formal, the time to solve the problem is limited and the decision-making situation is accompanied by a high degree of uncertainty about the consequences of this decision.
Background. In the context of the development of modern society visual information is one of the ways of communication, which forms for social psychologists a research request to include visual modality in the analysis to identify the ways and content of interpretations of the facts of everyday reality, which are peculiar to people.
Objective. The present work presents the research potential of a multimodal approach to the analysis of representations of urban space. These representations are transformed as a result of transformations in the city itself and are reflected in the mental picture of its inhabitants. Thus, the main aim of the work is to reveal the advantages of a qualitative research strategy, where, through the use of verbal and visual modalities, it is possible to obtain meaningful textural data and describe the process of transformation of representations of Moscow, as well as to show the deep experiences that can accompany it. The empirical aim of the study is to describe the content of representations of Moscow and their transformation. The empirical object of the study is representations of Moscow. The empirical subject of the study is the transformation of representations about the urban space of Moscow.
Method. In order to fulfill aim, the research design was formed, where the photos were both: a means of reflecting of representations of the city and the stimulus material for the formation of narratives, which reflected and analyzed the dynamics of the residents' representations of their city.
The sample included two groups of respondents: 12 native residents of Moscow and 13 residents who moved to Moscow and lived for the last 5 years. The age of the subjects ranged from 24 to 30 years.
Results. Thanks to the implemented design of the study, where, due to photographs as a stimulus material, narratives turned out to be detailed in content and emotionally saturated with experiences, the presence of two lines of discourse in the representations of Moscow was revealed: Moscow-resting and Moscow-working. The mechanism of the personification of the city by residents is analyzed as an effect of the perception of urban space.
Conclusion. The use of a multimodal form of research made it possible, based on the analysis of photographs and narratives, to describe the content and transformations of representations of Moscow, as well as the outline of the perspective of the work performed.
Backstage. There is a shortage of socio-psychological research devoted to the systematic consideration of the problem of teachers' attitude to changes in modern schools at three levels: organizational, interpersonal and individual-personal.
Objective of the study is to identify the interrelationships of change response styles with teachers' perception of organizational culture and conflicts in the school.
Methods. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a remote format using an online platform. Used: the questionnaire "Change response styles", "Methods of diagnosing the organizational culture of the school", the method "Conflicts in the educational environment".
Sample. The study involved 66 teachers of senior classes of secondary schools and lyceums in several regions of Russia (Zarechny city, Penzenskaya oblast; Lesnoy city Sverdlovskaya oblast; Novouralsk, Sverdlovskaya oblast).
Results. Teachers with a conservative change response style prefer a traditional stable environment and are focused on a resultive organizational culture of the school; they estimate the frequency of conflicts between teachers and pupils at school with the involvement of parents lower. Teachers with an innovative response style strive for constant progress and innovation and are guided by the innovative culture of the school; a positive correlation was revealed with the assessment of the frequency of conflicts between teacher and pupil with the participation of a parent. Teachers who are representatives of the reactive change response style have a hard time adapting to any type of change, prefer the role culture of the school; there is a positive relationship with the degree of emotional discomfort caused by several types of conflicts involving the teacher. Teachers with a realizing response style flexibly adapt to various changes and prefer innovative and family types of school culture; they have a negative relationship with emotional discomfort from conflicts involving the teacher.
Conclusion. The results obtained allow us to determine the perspective of further steps of the author's team, which consists in building a three–way model of the educational space "school ― pupil ― family" with the inherent properties of a systemic self-developing object.
Background of this study is determined by the increased interest in mathematical education in recent years. Teachers and researchers are concerned about the conditions and means of developing mathematical education. Along with this, there is no consensus on what constitutes mathematical abilities, what is their structure and development.
Objective of this study is to compare the development of mathematical skills of first-graders in different educational programs and to identify specific to each program features.
The study sample consisted of 434 first-graders of Moscow schools (54.8% of boys), among which: 37.1% of first-graders learn programs of increased complexity, 44% ― traditional programs, 18.9% ― developmental education program.
Methods. An author's set of tasks was developed to diagnose the mathematical skills of first-graders in this study. It included "classical" tasks children must perform regardless of the training program and "specific" tasks that test the awareness of meaning of the mathematical actions performed.
Results. The analysis showed that most of the classical mathematical skills are not related to the character of the program and it developed by all first-graders in the course of training. However, complex arithmetic skills (working with two-digit numbers and searching for an unknown sum component) developed more effectively in programs of increased complexity. Specific skills related to reasonable action with a number (tasks for a number line or measurement) showed an ambiguous development dynamic. It allows us to assume that the content of programs does not affect specific skills.
Conclusion. This study allows us to form a hypothesis that the selecting students for programs affects only the rate of development of a number of classical mathematical skills. Whereas specific skills are more dependent on the content of the program. It requires further study.
Background. The study is devoted to cultural specificity of the personality value sphere, and from the point of view of its level ― explicit and implicit structure. The novelty of the study lies in the appeal to inaccessible and practically unexplored implicit levels of value presentation, whereas most studies research deals exclusively with the approximate levels of their presentation.
Objective of the studyis a cross-cultural comparison of the structure of the value sphere of the individual from the point of view of its implicit and explicit level on the example of Russian and Uzbek culture.
Methods. The following methods were used: the refined S. Schwartz PVQ method, M. Etkind’s color test of relationships.
Sample. 190 subjects took part in the study ― 86 people of Uzbek culture and 104 of Russian culture.
Results. The study showed a significant coincidence of the leading and insignificant values of both cultures at the explicit level. The explicit differences are as follows: despite the leading nature, less significant in the Uzbek sample compared to the Russian were such values as independence of actions, independence of thought, personal security, well-being in interpersonal relations, tolerance for other people, and more significant ― life pleasures, reputation, public safety, responsibility to the loved ones. At the implicit level, the differences between cultures are less manifested, the following values are more significant on the Russian sample: diverse life experience, public safety. More significant the Uzbek sample is the responsibility to loved ones. Cross-cultural differences of some values are significantly evident at both levels. These are public safety (Uzbek subjects have higher significance at the explicit level and lower at the implicit level than Russians) and responsibility to loved ones (higher in Uzbek subjects at both levels). Public safety has shown to be implicitly insignificant value to both cultures.
1. In representatives of both cultures, the structure of personality value sphere at the explicit and implicit levels does not coincide.
2. Intercultural differences in the structure of value sphere are observed both at the explicit and implicit levels.
3. At the explicit level, the leading and insignificant values among the representatives of the two cultures largely coincide. The differences found affect the degree of significance of values associated with independence, personal and public safety, and relationships with others.
4. At the implicit level, the differences between cultures consist of the following: more significant for the Russian sample are diverse life experience, social security. More significant for the Uzbek sample is responsibility to relatives.
5. Values were also found whose cross-cultural differences in significance are manifested at both levels. These are public safety (higher on the explicit and lower on the implicit level among the Uzbek subjects than among the Russians) and responsibility to relatives (more significant for Uzbek subjects at both levels). At the same time, public safety among the subjects of both cultures is an implicitly less insignificant value.
Practical application of the results. The results can be applied in the joint training and professional activities organization of representatives of different cultures.
Acknowledgements. The article was made within the framework of the grant "Cross-cultural differences in the ways of cognitive processing of verbal and figurative material" of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant No. 20-013-00674.
Background. Information technologies are developing intensively now. Problems related to their impact on human mental development are becoming relevant. The researchers are interested in one of the particular issues that is the interrelation between video games and aggression. Additionally, the researchers admit the inconsistency of the obtained results and the need for more comprehensive consideration of the problem.
Objective. To determine the specificities of the problem elaboration related to the interrelation between interest in video games and aggressive tendencies in the context of the topics it is reflected in.
Methods. This review is based on the material of the articles indexed in Scopus. Data were collected and analyzed using the data analysis tools from online platforms Scopus and SciVal.
Results. A general characterization of the articles, that are consistent with the link between interest in video games and aggression, is presented. The following topics were identified as those that represent this link in the most detail: «Media Violence; Video Games; Aggression», «Internet Use; Addiction; Gaming», «Online Games; Avatar; Gaming», «Cyberbullying; Crime Victims; Participant Roles», «Portrayal; Stereotypy; Media Representations». A detailed analysis of the articles, that reflect the considered issue in the context of these topics, is presented.
Conclusion. The researchers discuss the issues of more detailed elaboration of the interrelation between interest in video games and aggression. In particular they pay attention to the variables choice and control. Additionally, they conduct a critical analysis of existing concepts of aggression relatively to the considered issue and the possibility of using them. It is mentioned that the empirical data concerning aspects of video game use are generally collected on the basis of respondents' self-reports; their behavior and activities are rarely examined. Trends concerning the study of aggression in real and virtual environments (in particular, bullying and cyberbullying), racial and gender stereotypes, and aggressive tendencies related to gaming disorder are revealed.
Background. The relevance of the study is due to the fact that the information society in the early 20s of the 21st century faced a new phenomenon of the social and labor environment — the ability to work outside offices, outside workplaces and posts. The psychology of such work has not yet been studied far enough, there is not enough data on its effectiveness, productivity, and most importantly, on the motivation of workers for whom such work has become possible and accessible.
Objective is analyzing the motivational structure, as well as highlighting the content haracteristics of the labor interests of both employees and managers working remotely (online)
Methods. Cluster analysis of structured interviews with employees and managers, F. Herzberg's methodology «Monitoring of labor motives», K. Zamfir's test for determining the motivational complex of employees and the author's methodology «Labor interests of employees» were used as methodological tools.
Samplе. The study sample consisted of 134 people working remotely in an online education company in different departments and in different positions (30% — managers, 70% — specialists).
Results. The study made it possible to identify what content of remote work should be in order for respondents to consider their work interesting. Three key factors of remote work were identified: variety and novelty of tasks for employees, opportunities for professional development, and emotional and personal attitude to functional duties. Intrinsic motivation turned out to be greater than outwardly positive and outwardly negative motivation in 65% of respondents. It was confirmed that the main motive for working remotely is the content of work and, additionally, career development and personal success. The leading labor interests turned out to be professional, career, group and corporate, and not at all economic.
Conclusion. The conducted research shows that the condition of remote work increases interest in the content of the activity and requires increased attention to intrinsic motivation.
Acknowledgements. Author is grateful to Volkov V.V. for assistance in data collection.
Background. Historically, the status of transgender identity in the classification of mental disorders is ambiguous and is conditioned by sociocultural factors that influence its perception. Recently, it has been seen as a variation of the norm, which is not a psychopathology, but is stigmatized. A reflection of the reconsidering of transgender identity was the development of ICD-11, the application of which requires research. .
Objective of the research is to study differences in the experience of distress associated with body image and gender identity.
Sample. The study included 256 respondents (119 with a masculine identity, 61 with a feminine identity, and 76 with a nonbinary identity). Age 21,6±6,4 years, range — 12–56 years. The sample is geographically, economically and ethnically diverse.
Methods. To study the contribution of socio-demographic characteristics to the experience of distress was explored using the χ2 test with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. The use of qualitative analysis of content made it possible to highlight the key problems they faced.
Results. Many socio-demographic characteristics are associated with experienced distress, which is not specific. It is associated both with the bodily structures that determine it and with discrimination that affects the respondents. Most of the respondents faced micro-aggression (insults, incorrect use of pronouns), physical and psychological violence. To minimize distress, the respondents resorted to practices consistent with their gender identity and to wearing appropriate clothing.
Conclusion. Experience of distress among carriers of macro- and micro-identities has been studied. The results of the study will be practical in clinical-psychological practice where transgender and nonbinary identities are often pathologized.
Acknowledgements. The author thanks the assistant of the Department of Health Psychology and Neuropsychology of KSMU Nilufer Majid Kizi Khakhutadze for help in developing the questionnaire and to the reviewers, whose comments made it possible to improve the manuscript.