The discussion of crucial problems of psychophysiology and natural sciences is presented, in general: are there any recurrences of measured values of psychophysiological parameters (functions) of a person. It is shown that it is impossible to obtain arbitrarily a repetition of samples for tremor and electromyogram (when trying to maintain static muscular tension), statistical distribution function of samples f(x) is continuously changing. This dynamics is typical for tremor (conditionally involuntary movement) and electromyogram when the higher nervous activity of individual oversees the muscular effort. The involuntary movement (tremor) shows the number of coincidence of electromyogram samples (at unrestricted muscular tension) k, which is similar to such in the matrices of pairwise comparisons of tremor samples. Shannon’s entropy in this case does not change significantly.
The article was written in the context of creative legacy of A.A. Leontiev (1936—2004). Responding to the scientist’s call to intensify psychological methodology work and enhance “the criticism of notions”, the author analyzes the history and development of the notion of “functional organ” in the psychology of activity. Contrary to the popular recent trend defining mentality (psyche, mind) as a functional organ of individual or soul, the author insists on defining mentality (psyche, mind) as a functional organ of activity, which corresponds rather to the spirit than to the letter of activity approach in psychology by interpretation of A.N. Leontiev School . Such understanding may help to bring psychology out of dichotomy of mechanistic and spiritualistic theories. Even L.S. Vygotsky used to note that without overcoming this barrier the normal development of psychological science and practice is impossible.
The Young Adults group (N=115) was chosen for the research. The qualitative data analysis has shown practically no significant correlations between selfactualization and egocentricity. Nevertheless, there were a few moderate and weak correlations between egocentricity and few selfactualization test scales what make us to consider selfactualization and egocentricity as complicated phenomena, which are connected with various factors such as labor activity, gender and age.
The article represented the results of the comparative study of personal characteristics of adolescents with and without experience of sexual relations. Sample: 405 students (SaintPetersburg) at the age of 14—16 years: 228 sexually active (128 boys and 100 girls) and 177 non-sexually active (100 boys and 77 girls). Used techniques: “Teenagers about parents” by L . Wasserman, I. Gorkova, E. Romycin; Multifactor personality inventory “FPI” (form B) by I. Fainberg, H. Sarg, R. Gampel; Gordon Personal Inventory; “Selfactualization test” in the adaptation of the Y. Aleshina, L. Gozman, M. Zaika, M. Croz; The testquestionnaire selfrelation by V. Stolin, “The analysis of family relations” by E. Eidemiller, V. Ustitskis and author’s questionnaire. All the adolescents with sexual relations are distinguished from nonsexually active cause of high sociability, tendency to dominance and vigor. An additional factor that provokes a sexual relationship is an emotional distance from parents.
It was shown in our previous researches, that such styles of parenting, like overprotection and overexactingness, contribute to formation of three children abnormal personality types: oriented on external help, oriented on compliance of own behaviour with other people requirements and oriented on protest against such compliance. These personality types are the most important factors influencing the occurrence of parentchild problems. The present study included adults (n=54; age 18—40), who asked for psychological consultation with their personal problems. The analysis of consulting cases detected that 42 of 54 clients (78%) were educated with overprotection or overexactingness style of parenting in their childhood. These clients had the same abnormal personality types that had the children from families of psychological consultation clients with parentchild problems, educated with the same parenting style. It was shown, that abnormal personality types, formed in childhood, influenced the formation of large amount of personal problems in adulthood.
Article presents results of empirical study focused on cultural differences in preferences of conflict interaction tactics in conflicts with high power and equal partner, in interpersonal and business relations. Hypotheses: Characteristics of conflict situation (type of relations, differences in social status, content of conflict) influence on manifestation of cultural differences in conflict interaction. Sample: 125 Dutch students (mean age: 21.62), 146 Russian students (mean age: 20.15). Method: “Conflict situations” (Sinelnikova, Wigboldus). Participants were presented with conflict stories in business and interpersonal context with equal and high power partners. Research has shown that characteristics of conflict situation: power distance, type of relations, content of conflict situation, influenced on manifestation of cultural differences in conflict tactics preferences). Results demonstrated that Russian students expressed their feelings and confronted more in family conflict, Dutch students – in conflicts, initiated by violation of social norms. Russians and Dutch students demonstrated equal readiness to cooperate with partner in conflict. However Dutch students preferred direct tactics, and Russian students preferred irony.
The paper presents the analysis of developmental changes in executive functions in early schoolchildren. 117 first-graders (7.62±0.45 y.o.) 86 third-graders (9.64±0.4 y.o.) participated in the study. Qualitative neuropsychological assessment and computerbased tests were used to evaluate the development of executive functions. The comparison of results in first and third graters reveals a significant improvement of temporal characteristics and accuracy of performance of the tests. The results may be evidence of the significant development of executive functions in the primary school age. In addition it is shown that the results of neuropsychological assessment and computer methods may be used as reliable predictors of learning disabilities
Paper presents results of validation of the Russian version of The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire developed by R. Moss-Morris and colleagues for the diagnostic of patient’s beliefs about causes, duration, consequences, treatment of illness, and their ability to control it. The sample (N=80) included three groups of patients aged 17—26 years (mean age 20.2±2.8 years) with nonpsychotic depression within mood disorders (n=33), personality disorders (n=22) and schizotypal disorder (n=25). In order to establish the external validity of the questionnaire patients filled Beck’s Cognitive Insight Scale, Illness and TreatmentRelated Locus of Control Scale and TreatmentRelated Selfefficacy Scale . Factor validity and reliability of IPQR was demonstrated . Patients of all three groups tend to explain their illness by personality and (to a lesser extent) situational factors, to believe in the importance and effectiveness of the treatment, in their ability to control their illness. They consider illness as shortterm and not of a cyclical nature. Supporting the external validity of the questionnaire we demonstrated that beliefs about illness and its reasons correlates with results of the interview, cognitive insight, illness and treatmentrelated locus of control and treatmentrelated self-efficacy.