The paper analyzes the emergence of the concept of motive in Alexey N. Leontiev’s early writings and its correspondence to Kurt Lewin’s ideas and to the distinction of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation and the concept of the continuum of regulation in the present day self-determination theory of E. Deci and R. Ryan. The distinctions of extrinsic motivation based on reward and punishment versus “natural teleology” in K. Lewin’s works and of (extrinsic) motive versus interest in early A. N. Leontiev’s texts are explicated. The relationships between motive, goal, and personal meaning in the structure of activity regulation are analyzed. The author introduces the concept of quality of motivation referring to the degree of correspondence between motivation and one’s needs and authentic Self at large; the complementarity of activity theory approach and self-determination theory as regards the quality of motivation issue is highlighted.
Limited applicability of stochastics and comparing it with the new methods of multidimensional phase space were showed. Quantitative measures of the parameters are quasi-attractors for evaluation of chaotic dynamics on the example of the little finger abductor muscle. Method of multidimensional phase space carried out the study and modeling of complex biological objects (complexity). The state of the neuromuscular system is studied in two modes: a weak muscle tension and strong, almost the maximum force. Used quasi-attractors volumes of multidimensional phase spaces, which provide the identification of real changes in the parameters of the functional state with weak muscles (F1=5 daN) and strong (F2=10 daN) static stress. Analysis of the timebase signal x1(t) obtained with myograph, and autocorrelation functions A(t) signal showed their unrepeatability. Comparative analysis of the biomechanical system is made on the basis of registration of quasi-attractor’s volume, as well as on the basis of analysis of the Shannon’s entropy E. Volume of quasi-attractor’s movements x1(t) и x2(t)=dx1/dt at low load is slightly less than similar amounts of displacement of vector (х1, х2)Т under a heavy load of musculus abductor digiti mini. The values ??of the Shannon entropy under a heavy load are statistically unchanged. Values of the Shannon entropy under heavy load, not statistically vary on the advisability of entropy approach in the assessment of muscular efforts and the impossibility of application of the theorem of Glansdorff—Prigogine (thermodynamics of nonequilibrium systems) in psychophysiological research. Overall, restricting the use of methods of stochastics and the possibility of using the method of multidimensional phase spaces, have been demonstrated in the Eskov—Zinchenko effect.
The step-by-step concretization of a basic abstract system S–O has been done in the article. The main phenomena of team labor were identified through this process and basic forms of team work integration such as organization culture, exchange relationships, procedural and distributive justices as well as integration by labor objects were disclosed. The full range of ergatic systems’ forms was exposed as result of concept modeling. The ergatic system model has shown sufficient logical base for integration of subjects of ergonomics and organizational psychology. It also demonstrates the full opportunities of activity approach as general theory for wide scope of humanitarian sciences.
The article characterizes the scientific activity of B. M. Teplov, one of the largest Russian psychologists of the XX century, the founder of four scientific schools in Russian psychology. Identifies the key stages of his life and creativity, emphasizes his fundamental contribution to the development of such areas of psychology as the psychology of abilities, differential psychophysiology, military psychology, history of psychology, methodology of anthropology. Special attention is paid to historical-methodological and scientific-pedagogical activity of B. M. Teplov, who made a significant contribution to the development of psychological knowledge and University education in the country, as well as training at MSU psychologists of the highest qualification.
Psychosemantic approach is most in demand when it comes to research collective representations, allowing to identify the underlying attitudes and stereotypes that are poorly reflected upon, or hidden because of social undesirability, and therefore difficult to diagnose. Political leaders’ perception is just such an example. The article deals with a number of images of contemporary political leaders and historical figures who have played at one time a significant role in world politics in the student audience perceptions of South Korea. Psychosemantic author’s technique “The image of a political leader” was used to obtain empirical data. 107 subjects (females and males) took part in the survey. The study included the construction of multi-dimensional semantic spaces, projecting the operational model of categorical perception structures of political leaders. For data analysis methods of multivariate statistics were used (principal component analysis and discriminant analysis).
In this paper the author considers the state arising when a man perceives and remembers the information presented during night sleep (this educational method is called hypnopedia). On the basis of the analysis of hypnopedical researches' results it is proved, that a student forms the new kind of sleep — hypnopedical sleep (it appears on stages 1 and 2 of slow-wave sleep): this kind of sleep has new functions (perceptual and mnestic), new time borders (the appropriate conditioned reflexes of falling asleep and awakening on certain time and on presentation of the information are produced) and transformed neurophysiological basis (an alpha-rhythm appears). Hypnopedical sleep as altered state of consciousness can be considered as analogue of the higher mental function because of it has social origin, are voluntary (it is formed not spontaneously, but intensionaly and directedly) and are mediated by such psycholgical tools as preliminary created readiness to perceive and memorize the information.
18 September 2016 90-m to year of life after heavy illness died Nina Nikolaevna Bogomolova — our colleague, friend and mentor, honored scientist of Moscow University, senior researcher at the social psychology chair of psychology Department (1973-2015), candidate of historical Sciences.