Background. Having turned from a simple technology into information and communication environment, virtualization affects all spheres of human life. To date, the expansion of its influence proceeds in two main interpenetrating directions: increasing the impact of virtuality on the real world and the virtualization of reality itself. Under the influence of network communication, the consciousness of the individual changes. A new networked way of thinking and existence is being formed. With sufficiently versatile studies of cybercommunication, there is no collective image of the category of virtual communication that would describe its structure for better and more effective interaction of users on the Internet.
Objective. The aim of the study is to determine the structure of ideas about virtual communication and to identify the relationship of individual ideas with the personal characteristics of social network users.
Methods. The material was obtained during a survey (23.09.2020–15.12.2021), which asked the subjects to bring as many free associations to the phrase «Virtual communication is ...» as possible. R.B. Kettell’s 16-factor personality questionnaire (Form A) was used to diagnose personality traits.
Sample. The sample consisted of 183 people aged 18–75 years (average age 38.7 years).
Results. The main attributes of the concept of «virtual communication» among users of social networks were identified. They included such attributes as «affective» with a division into «positive emotions» and «negative emotions», «motivational»,
«cognitive», «objectness», «subjectness», «alternative to reality», «self-realization», «space and time», and «perception». The interrelation of individual representations of the components of virtual communication with the personal characteristics of
respondents is noted.
Conclusion. According to the results of the study, eleven categories have been identified, with the help of which the concept of “virtual communication” is described by network users. The features of the received categories in different age groups are analyzed. A five-factor model of cybercommunication was obtained, which included emotional-affective, perceptual, subjectivity, motivational, and cognitive-temporal factors. The connection of the selected categories of cybercommunication with the personal characteristics of users of social networks is revealed and described.
Background. In recent years, the identification of individual style regulation of decision-making (DM) has become relevant, since DM is an integral characteristic of human life in a complex and uncertain world. As a new aspect, the cross-cultural commonality and specificity of the emotional and personal components of DM are highlighted.
Objective. The aim is to carry out a cross-cultural analysis of the decision-making style of Russian and Chinese samples according to productive and unproductive approaches to coping with uncertainty distinguished in the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ).
Sample. The sample consisted of 531 participants: 259 from Russia (М age= 27,67; 32,4 % men) and 272 from China (Мage= 27,76; 38,6 % men).
Methods. The four-factor structure of MDMQ for the Chinese sample was verified. In addition, the participants were presented with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule — PANAS. All participants were tested through informed collaboration; in Russian sample it was conducted in person, in Chinese sample online testing through the Wen Zhuan Xing (䰞ধᱏ) platform was involved.
Results. Cross-cultural comparison of sample means revealed greater Vigilance in Russians and greater Back-Passing and Hypervigilance in Chinese participants. Correlation analysis has shown (1) similar interrelations of unproductive coping among Russians and Chinese men and differences in Chinese women; (2) positive relations of Vigilance with positive affect and positive relations of unproductive coping with negative affect.
Conclusions. Considering differences in the variables of personal regulation of decision making, we should speak about the generality of their correlation in the latent classes of the two cultural samples.
Background. Despite a significant number of studies of self-attitude, the specifics of self-attitude in high school students of different sexes remains insufficiently studied due to the peculiarities of their conscious (cognitive) and emotional regulation.
Objective. The target is to identify the relationship between the frequency of manifestations of cognitive-emotional conflict during the video dialogue with the parameters of self-attitude in high school students of different sexes.
Methods. Manifestations of cognitive-emotional conflict were recorded in a video dialogue and identified on the basis of formalized integral expert assessments. During the dialogue, questions or approval of the methodology “Research of self-relationship” by S.R. Pantileev were pronounced aloud by the experimenter. The respondent had to answer aloud in detail, and after the answer spontaneous clarifying questions and remarks of the experimenter, uttered in order to provoke a cognitive-emotional conflict and to increase emotionality of the dialogue were possible. The dialogue was conducted by an experienced psychologist (woman).
Sample. The study involved 37 people — schoolchildren, grades 8–11 (average age 15 years, standard deviation 1.5 years) from different cities of the Russian Federation (15 boys and 22 girls).
Results. As a result of correlation analysis of 9 parameters of self-attitude and the frequency of occurrence of cognitive-emotional conflict, it was shown that the frequency of conflict is associated with the nature of self-attitude and has a pronounced gender specificity. It was revealed that boys have a significant correlation only with the scale “closedness — openness”, while girls — with the scales “self-acceptance”, “self-attachment”, “internal conflict” and “self-accusation”.
Conclusions. It was found that the more are young men characterized by openness, reflection and self-criticism, the more often they manifest cognitive-emotional conflict in the experimental situation. In girls, the emergence of a cognitive-emotional conflict in a research situation is associated with a decrease in self-acceptance (a general negative background of self-perception), self-worth (dissatisfaction with oneself and the desire to change oneself), as well as a general high internal conflict and self-accusation.
Practical application of the results. The results obtained are important both for differentiated education and for organizing more effective psychological support for students in the framework of educational work at school.
Background. The article deals with the problem of gender differences in the organization of cognitive processes, which is extremely relevant in theoretical and practical terms. The problem is considered on the example of interpretation and generalization of gender-relevant material by representatives of different gender identity and sex.
Objective. The aim is to identify the features of thinking activity which are based on different gender identities, as well as to study the content of such features in case they are found.
Methods. To form a sample, a test method for diagnosing gender identity was used (S. Bem, modified by V.A. Labunskaya and M.V. Burakova). Experimental methods were used to study thinking. The method «Interpretation of Proverbs» analyzed the results of interpretations of metaphorical sayings. The method «The Extra Fourth» analyzed the results of generalization of the images’ meaning.
Sample. 78 people with at least an incomplete higher education, 39 female and 39 male subjects took part in the study.
Results. Androgynous subjects demonstrate the least semantic, evaluative and aggressive distortions of the meaning of gender-relevant proverbs and the highest metaphorical level of their interpretation. Masculine subjects show a decrease in the level of generalization and the predominance of situational interpretations of proverbs based on their personal experience. Masculine women are more likely to have a misunderstanding of the meaning of the proverb. Masculine men are more likely to show aggressive distortions of meaning and evaluations.
Conclusions. There are features of mental activity associated with the GI of the subjects. They are selective in nature and are associated exclusively with the understanding and interpretation of gender-relevant material. The tendency to violate the objectivity of thinking is most clearly manifested in masculine subjects, especially in women — due to their discovery of clearer contradictions between their own social situation and the content of the material. A smaller percentage of selective distortions in feminine subjects may be explained by possible conformity, which reduces the importance of gender material, and in androgynous subjects it may be a sign of their internal non-conflict, meaningful harmony of this topic for them.
Background. The problem of criteria for evaluating solution success is one of the most important for psychology of creative thinking. Evaluation of the solution by the subject during the process of thinking in the form of «confidence / doubt» can be criteria and basis for subject’s experiencing potential success or failure, which leads to continuation or stop in solving.
The objective. The study was to research the dynamics of intellectual confidence / doubt at different stages of problem-solving process.
Sample. The study involved 66 university students, specialists and non- specialists in relation to the content of the tasks.
Methods. The subjects solved 8 problematic tasks of scientific and artistic content with hints and estimate interest and confidence at different stages of solving with subjective scales. The following methods were used for intellectual characteristics “Raven’s Progressive Matrices”, “Complex Analogies”.
Results. 6 types of dynamics of intellectual confidence were identified, which correlated in various ways with the success of the solution. Successful solution of problematic scientific situations for specialists is associated with confidence at every stage, for non-specialists it is associated with doubts at the stages of understanding the problem and the formulation of solution. For problematic situations of artistic content solved by non-specialist, the following types of dynamics are associated with successful solution: «doubt — doubt — confidence», «confidence at all stages»; the latter was also observed with an unsuccessful solution. For this reason 2 types of confidence were identified: (1) reasonable, based on hints, leading to a successful solution, and (2) non- reasonable, without relying on a hint, not leading to a successful solution.
Conclusion. The procedural criteria to evaluate solution are the intellectual emotions of confidence or doubt that regulate the process of thinking. Depending on the stage of solution and the content of the task, intellectual confidence changes in different ways for specialists and non-specialists, performing the function of a preliminary assessment and regulation of solving process.
Background. Due to global changes and growing socio-cultural uncertainty, it is important to determine which personal traits allow a person to maintain a high level of subjective well-being in modern conditions of living.
Objective. The article aims to determine the contribution of personal traits (perfectionism, coping strategies and tolerance for ambiguity) to the components of subjective well-being (life satisfaction and subjective happiness).
Sample. The study involved 142 respondents (123 females, 19 males), students of Moscow universities (mean age = 19,32, SD = 0,644).
Methods. Respondents were offered to complete 6 questionnaires: «Three-factor perfectionism questionnaire», «Proactive coping abbreviated questionnaire», «Diagnostic technique of stress coping» of D. Amirkhan, «Scales of tolerance and intolerance to ambiguity in modification of S. Badner’s questionnaire», «Subjective happiness scale» of S. Lyubomirsky, «The satisfaction with life scale » by E. Diener. Statistical processing of the data was performed using statistics system, IBM SPSS Statistics 23 macros PROCESS, using regression and moderator analyses.
Results. Regression analysis revealed the positive contribution of proactive coping and the negative contribution of the perfectionism component “negative selectivity and fixation on one’s own imperfection” both to individual components of subjective well-being and to its integral indicator. The proactive coping strategy “seeking social support” contributes to the cognitive component of subjective well-being and its integral indicator, while not affecting the emotional component. Moderator model shows an increase in subjective well-being when using a proactive coping strategy, regardless of the level of the perfectionism component “negative selectivity and fixation on one’s own imperfection”.
Conclusion. Such personal traits as proactive coping strategies (proactive coping, seeking social support) and the perfectionism component of “negative selectivity...” contribute to the level of subjective well-being. Proactive coping also levels the connection between perfectionism and subjective well-being.
Background. Against the background of increased attention to the category of generation in social psychology, the methodological possibility of studying generations and intergenerational differences is analyzed. The existing limitations of this kind of research are suggested and classified; methods for leveling these limitations are proposed.
Objective is to propose and test an empirically correct scheme for the study of generations in social psychology.
Sample. The material on which this scheme was tested was obtained in the course of an Internet survey (951 people).
Methods. The survey included a modified author’s Lifeline methodology to explore perceptions of cultural life scenarios. The method of analysis of the results involved the study of the possibility to apply APC (age-period-cohort) analysis to socio-psychological studies of intergenerational differences.
Results. A scheme for the study of intergenerational differences has been proposed and substantiated, including, in particular, the use of theoretical meta-analyses, the methodology of APC analysis and the study of complex attitudes of the cultural life script (CLS).
Conclusions. The conclusion is made on the need to abandon studies of traditional generations and the need to move to smaller units of analysis — quasi-generations in line with socio-psychological methodology.
Background. Neuropsychology and neuroscience solve a number of general issues concerning the relationship between brain and psyche, the principles of the structural and functional brain organization, the cerebral basis of mental processes, patterns of damage and recovery of complex behavioral systems. Neuroscientific basis for higher brain function recovery allows us to explain the regularities of neuroplasticity. The neuropsychological basis makes it possible to build an adequate programme of neuropsychological rehabilitation, taking into account not only psychological but also biological patterns. Thus, it is necessary to strengthen the integration of neuroscientific and neuropsychological points of views in this domain.
Objective. The study aims to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of modular theory and the theory of system and dynamic localization of functions in solving the question of structural and functional brain organization and their reflection in approaches to neuropsychological rehabilitation.
Methods. Comparative analysis and the method of generalization were applied.
Results. Modular theory and the theory of system and dynamic localization of functions have a number of common key points. 1. The principle of the system (distributed) organization of higher cortical functions. 2. Horizontal-vertical structure of higher brain functions. 3. Сortical function is the constellation of factors/modules. 4 Functional unit (factor/module) is a structural element of different brain systems. 5. Damage of a functional unit leads to a selective damage of a certain group of cognitive processes. Theories differ in understanding the content of a functional unit of a brain, which leads to differing understandings of the typology in the ways to recovery. The study considers the role of subcortical structures in providing behavioral automatisms. The paper shows the importance of the intact conduction pathways in making rehabilitation prognosis.
Conclusion. The study reveals limitations of the concept of factor in explaining the variability and dissociative picture of a neuropsychological symptom. The content of factor as well as its structural elements are to be revised and described. Certain statements of the theory of system and dynamic localization of functions have to be modified in order to reflect the regularities of neuroplasticity in the methodology of neuropsychological rehabilitation.
Background. This study discusses one of the last L.S. Vygotsky’s works — the fourth chapter in «Fascism in Psychoneurology» bulletin (1934). Motivation of the author to write this text is analyzed in the broad context of sociopolitical and personal aspects of his life: general growth of sociopsychological tension, repressions that touched L.S. Vygotsky’s family in 1930s, personally significant Jewish question and antisemitism in nazi Germany. In addition, joint letter from R.N. Vygodskaya and L.S. Vygotsky to D.I. Vygodsky published for the first time. This letter mentioned the arrest of Vygotsky’s cousin L.I. Vygodsky.
Objective. The aim of the study was to reconstruct personal meanings and circumstances of L.S. Vygotsky in writing a chapter for «Fascism in Psychoneurology» bulletin.
Methods. Elements of source analysis, search and analysis of archival documents, theoretical analysis of literature on L.S. Vygotsky’s biography.
Results. The analysis showed that L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria’s criticism of Fascism in psychology is built around several topics: criticism of the basic anthro-pological idea of the Third Reich about the predestination of human development depending on «blood and race»; an analysis of the process of politicization and ideologization of science, exemplified by the concept of «Integrationstypologie» introduced by E.R. Jaensch, which L.S. Vygotsky criticizes; political self-defense of Soviet scientists against possible persecution; the issue of national self-determination of Soviet Jewish scientists.
Conclusion. Authors of this article suggested that this work may be seen not only as a scientific criticism and assertion of humanistic values in psychology but also as an act of political self-defense from sanctions and persecution that took place during the second half of the 1930s.
Background. Currently, the number of entrepreneurs who run traditional business or create a startup is growing. A startup is a special type of entrepreneurial activity that increases the risks of doing business. In this regard, the question of the personality traits of the entrepreneur who has a traditional business and the founder of the startup arises.
Objective. The aim is to identify distinctive professional values of entrepreneurs who prefer traditional business (hereinafter referred to as TB entrepreneurs) and startup entrepreneurs.
Methods. The hypotheses were tested by a survey including two test methods: the Rokich values method, a modified method from the Bushkova-Shiklina study. The paper compared the set of professional values of traditional business entrepreneurs (TB) and startup founders. Differences in values were checked through Pearson’s chi-square calculation (χ2 — Pearson consent criterion).
Sample. The sample consisted of 90 people. Of these, 46 participants (25 men and 21 women) are entrepreneurs, and 44 (27 men and 17 women) participants are startup founders living in Moscow and St. Petersburg. The age of respondents is from 20 to 40 years.
Results. Statistically significant differences in the values of TB entrepreneurs and startup founders could not be found. The set of common values of TB entrepreneurs and startup founders is the same: interest in work, financially secure life, development. However, each group of entrepreneurs has its own specific values. TB entrepreneurs emphasise professionalism while startup founders emphasise success.
Conclusions. TB entrepreneurs and startup founders have similar values. The personalities of TB entrepreneurs and startup founders have many similarities, similar values and directions in life, despite the fact that the activities of these two groups are not identical and have their own characteristics. A startup should be considered as a subtype of entrepreneurship. TB entrepreneurs demonstrate professionalism as a specific professional value. Startup founders have another specific professional value which is freedom.
Practical application of the results. The results of the study are useful for group and individual work with entrepreneurs, and also serve as a starting point for a more detailed study of the socio-psychological aspects of entrepreneur’s personality.
Background. Psychological well-being of a modern person is largely connected with his adaptation to the risks of the digital world. A review of modern studies into psychological consequences of everyday digitalization suggests that the latter affects all areas of the personality: motivational, cognitive, and affective ones, as well as the features of self-awareness.
Objective. The task of the pilot study was to determine the possible relationships between the level of psychological well-being and the content of personal dispositions related to it (hardiness and dispositional optimism) with the features of adaptation to digital everyday life.
Sample. The study was conducted on a youth sample of 131 people. The average age of respondents was 22.8 years (median age = 21), 118 females, 13 male respondents).
Methods. The paper uses standardized scales of psychological well-being, resilience, dispositional optimism and a questionnaire specially designed for the purposes of the study aimed at identifying the level of psychological adaptation to digitalization, which included the scales of digital anxiety, behavioral, communicative and normative adaptation.
Results. The check of reliability of the scales in the questionnaire of psychological adaptation to digitalization gave acceptable results. Indicators of digital anxiety are negatively associated with indicators of psychological well-being, resilience and dispositional optimism. Behavioral and normative adaptation to the risks of digital world are not associated with psychological well-being and dispositional optimism, though they do positively correlate with resilience. Indicators of communicative adaptation were not associated with any of the methods used.
Conclusion. Modern youth have a developed repertoire of skills to ensure their own digital security and to organize a conscious information search, though at the same time they follow certain norms of virtual interaction that are consonant with social norms. However, this does not increase confidence in the ability to protect oneself and influence one’s own digital everyday life, which explains the generally weak correlation of indicators of digital adaptation with psychological well-being, general resilience and dispositional optimism.
Background. Language development is one of the most important tasks of education. Therefore, the study of those factors that affect it remains in demand. Though the relationship between language development and executive functions has been broadly studied recently, there is no data on their relationship in a longitudinal perspective in children aged 6 to 8 years. A comprehensive analysis of the relationship between language development and executive functions is of great importance for transition from kindergarten to primary school.
Objective. The study focuses on how narrative ability develops in children from preschool to the middle of elementary school and how it is associated with the level of executive functions.
Sample. The material was obtained during a three-year longitudinal study. The study sample data was collected in two sections: a) in kindergarten (n = 288, M = 6.59 years, SD = 4.11 months) and b) in the second grade of primary school (n = 210, M = 8.75 years, SD = 3.84 months).
Methods. The children’s executive functions were assessed with the NEPSY-II diagnostic toolkit, as well as with the DCCS method. The children’s narratives were assessed with the method of creating stories based on a series of pictures.
Results. 1) A statistically significant increase in micro- and macrostructure of narratives was found. 2) In kindergarten, girls demonstrate higher indicators in both macro- and microstructure of narrative than boys. However, by the 2nd grade, these significant differences are no longer observed. 3) Analysis of the relationship between narrative indicators and components of executive functions revealed that the strongest positive relationship is observed between auditory working memory and macro-microstructure in the preparatory group, however, by the 2nd grade, this relationship ceases to be significant. 4) It was shown that children who demonstrated higher rates in all executive functions at preschool age have higher results in narratives at school.
Conclusions. The important role of the development of executive functions during the preschool period of childhood in the development of narrative ability at school age is shown.