Relevance.The growth of mental health disorders, psychological problems in modern society among different categories of the population, including representatives of different cultures and faiths and the lack of cultural development of specific approaches to understanding mental health and psychological well-being raise the problem of cultural conditionality of representations of mental health and psychological well-being in a number of important interdisciplinary problems, of high scientific and practical importance in such multinational and multicultural countries as Russia.
Objective.To examine the relationship between cultural context and mental health and psychological well-being.
Methods.Review and analysis of current research in the field of cultural conditioning of various aspects of mental health and psychological well-being.Conclusions.The analysis of the different approaches to the study of representations of mental health and psychological well-being has allowed to establish that the existing differences in ways of coping with stress, the level of stigma in seeking psychological help have cultural conditioning and do not only depend on socio-economic living conditions, but also on subjective perceptions of these phenomena, as well as ethnic and cultural identity of people in a particular society. The urgency and necessity of development of new and cultural-specific adaptation of existing diagnostic tools for comparative study of ideas about mental health and psychological well-being within one territorially united society, which is characterized by high ethnic and cultural diversity, are shown.
Available Online: 20.06.2018
Relevance. On the course of the history human development is attended by and is determined by development of sing and symbolic systems, cultural codes of different languages. Modern civilization dictates the necessity of active intercultural exchange.
Objective. Analyzing the problem of exploring the development of symbolic function being achieved as unity of affective (emotional, ‚Äúpersonally experienced‚ÄĚ) and cognitive (intellectual, ‚Äúsubjective and knowledgeable‚ÄĚ).
Methods. Theoretical analysis of cultural typology presented by B.S. Bibler; structural and content analysis of the world image as a generalized construction of the social realm representativity in the human mind; objective and analytical approach to studying artifacts as social interaction mediated results.
Results. We substantiated the symbolic function as an individual mechanism implemented in culturally determined representation systems necessary for the emergence of interaction between individuals and for learning social implications. Studying the symbolic function presupposes analyzing those cultures where sign and symbolic means are created. Sign and symbolic means as cultural codes mediate human development and, at the same time, determine it. Signs and their systems being used in practical activity record achievements of human experience and allow creation of ‚Äúcultural artifacts‚ÄĚ.
Conclusions. The image of the world is represented in the culture, and cultural types indicate different images of the world in people belonging to those cultures. The structure of artifacts implements the function of the world image: representation of the structure, its logical links, and a set of tools for mediation in their symbolic role as well as the possible form of experiencing. Symbolic function is actively developed while learning. The content of polycultureeducation is focused learning of sign and symbolic systems‚Äô principles creation and functioning. Instruments of activity themselves are considered as primary artifacts, and secondary artifacts are the rules of primary artifacts use.
Relevance. The individualization of education, the rapid expansion of the sphere of digital knowledge and the risks associated with cyber-socialization put the problem of a professional psychological organization and pedagogical ‚Äúaccompaniment‚ÄĚ of individual trajectories of education for children and adolescents.
Objective. Identification the invariable elements of activity to support individual learning trajectories.
Methods. Analysis of literature; synthesis of theoretical and empirical (case study) methods.
Results. According to the comparative analysis of the approaches to the mentoring organization, the structures of the activities of the tutor, the curator (facilitator), the coach, as well as the essential and formal limitations of the various approaches in solving the problems of accompanying individual learning paths identified and described. It was founds that the compared approaches have fundamentally different attitudes towards the subject of activity. Academic tutoring is more effective in modern educational environments in comparison with curatorship and coaching. The stages of accompanying the individual trajectory of learning, carried out within the framework of psychological counseling for adults, were determined empirically.
Conclusions. The acts of transformations in the structure of the activity of an academic tutor fully correlate with the stages of tutoring humanistic counseling, and can be transfer to work with children, taking into account the specifics of each particular age and personal characteristics of the pupil. A general orientation of the activity on accompanying the individual training trajectory has been develop, which can become the basis for training mentor specialists and be used in the work of tutors.
Available Online: 20.06.2018
Relevance.Professional sport has become more complex and risky activity in the last decades. Consequently, scientific and applied multi-disciplinary field of sport trauma attract more and more attention. Together with swift development of sport medicine and rehabilitation theoreticians and practitioners pay attention to the differences of physical and psychological readiness to resuming of sport training and competing activities.
Objective.The article deals with the problem of psychological rehabilitation after sport trauma. Major types of interventions are discussed. Fear of re-injury is considered to be one of the key difficulties after sport trauma.
Methods.The article presents the case of a gymnast with a strong fear of re-injury. Characteristics of psychological traumatization are depicted. Consulting scheme is based on the theory and practice of trauma in the works of Pierre Janet.
Results.Three stages of counseling included 1) stabilization of personality and mitigation of acute psychophysiological stress symptoms; creation of a narration about trauma; 2) re-processing of traumatic memories and desensibilization; 3) reintegration and return to sport and competing activity. A number of methods were used to achieve the goal of each stage: cognitive-behavioral interventions, analytic interventions, art techniques, biological feedback, self-determination interventions. The dynamic of 10 sessions is analyzed.
Conclusions were made on the necessity of psychological guidance, which should start shortly after trauma and be provided during the whole rehabilitation period in a systematic approach, including a sportsman, a coach and parents.
Relevance. The relevance of the study of youth representations of parenting is due to a number of socio-economic and psychological changes taking place in modern society, including the emergence of deviant forms of parenthood, the phenomena of mixing family roles and abandonment of parenthood in general.
Objective. The purpose of this study is to study the content features of representations of motherhood and fatherhood in girls and boys and determine the degree of their harmony as a condition of psychological readiness for parenthood.
Method. Content analysis of the respondents' essays on the topic of future parenthood, aimed at identifying the content of the features of representations of parenthood and the degree of their harmony in girls and boys.
The study involved 231 respondents (190 girls and 42 boys), aged 18 to 25 years.
Results.The main characteristics of parenthood as a special social role and activity: child care; creation of necessary conditions for the development of the child; education of the child; emotional support of the child. It is revealed that in the views of girls the most important function of motherhood is to provide emotional support to the child; in the views of young men about fatherhood - education and training of the child. The majority of respondents demonstrated a high degree of discrepancies of perceptions about parental functions related to the idealization of the images of the child and their own parenting and the lack of representations about the methods of implementing maternal and paternal roles.
Conclusions. The data obtained show that the surveyed young people are not ready to realize a parental role and require corrective work aimed at forming realistic, complete and adequate representations of motherhood and fatherhood before their occurrence.
Relevance. Both personality and clinical psychology suppose many empirical examples describing the disengagement from activity and shifting to another one as quite effective: e.g., unfulfilled dreams and regret for them, severe illnesses or disabling conditions, etc. These examples demonstrate the importance of study of refusal from the goal and goal change as special self-regulatory processes that are not reducible to other processes of self-regulation (e.g., planning, modeling, achievement) and can be productive. Such studies require a validated measure.
Objective. The aim of this work was to validate the Russian-language version of the Goal Disengagement and Re-Engagement Scale, proposed in the self-regulation theory by C. Carver and M. Scheier.
Methods. 287 students and 4792 employees of a large production organization filled out the Russian-language version of the Goal Disengagement and Re-Engagement Scale (Wrosch et al., 2003a). The students also filled the Inventory of Styles of Behavior Self-regulation, a modification of the J. Kuhl‚Äôs Action Control Scale Test, a Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire.
Results. Both internal consistency and factor structure of the scale were demonstrated in both samples. The external validity of the scale is confirmed by the expected pattern of correlations with action / state orientation, behavior self-regulation and strategies of cognitive regulation of emotions. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis show that goal disengagement and reengagement differ from other aspects of self-regulation of behavior not only structurally (at the level of their correlations with each other) but also functionally: after statistical control of the other aspects of self-regulation, goal disengagement and reengagement still predict a number of cognitive strategies regulation of emotions.
Conclusions. The psychometric properties of the Russian-language version of the Goal Disengagement and Re-Engagement Scale are sufficient for its application for research purposes. Further studies could focus on the differentiation of the process of goal change and other self-regulatory processes, especially their effect on the productivity, health, well-being.
This year Kokurina Irina Georgievna has her 70th anniversary. Our congratulations for the talented scientist and teacher, PhD in psychology, associate Professor of the Department of Social psychology, Faculty of psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University