Relevance. Scientific and scientific-organizational activity of a world-famous psychologist A.N. Leontiev is a constant interest of specialists in the field of humanistics, methodologists and historians of psychology. In connection with the 115th anniversary of this outstanding scientist, it seems relevant to remind readers of the poorly studied aspects of his life creation.
Objective. Description of contribution А.N. Leontiev in the development of engineering-psychological, ergonomic and reflexive-acmeological problems in the 1950-1970's.
Methods. Science-research analysis (from the positions of reflexive psychology and personology), and methodological analysis.
Results. The author analyzes such aspects of the scientific heritage of A.N. Leontiev, as his fundamental research of productive thinking and scientific creativity, as well as applied developments in the field of engineering psychology and ergonomics. The fundamental contribution of the scientist to modern human studies and to the institutional construction of psychological science is shown.
Conclusions. Scientific creativity of A.N. Leontiev in the field of psychology is interdisciplinary in nature, because it synthesizes the methodological orientations of modern humanities - natural science, technology cybernetic, social and humanitarian. The crown of the enormous scientific and organizational activity of A.N. Leontiev became a large-scale institutionalization of Russian psychology, which demanded from him not less vision and intuition, intelligence and will, diplomacy and energy than his outstanding creative activity in the field of philosophy, psychology, ergonomics and pedagogy.
Relevance. The necessity to research the self-determination of adolescents in the context of significant socio-cultural changes in the Russian Federation at the beginning of the 21stcentury.
Objective. Study of the value and sense orientation of high school students in modern Russia at the stage of preliminary professional self-determination in adolescence.
Methods. Method of studying personal professional perspective (PPP) by N.S. Pryazhnikov; content analysis.
Sample: 240 pupils (133 female, 107 male) of 9th-11thgrades of Moscow schools, aged 14-17.
Results. An analysis of the responses of adolescents to the questions of the methodology of the PPP showed: 1) In 72,5% of answers high school students perceive honest labor as a value; 2) In 81,7% of answers adolescents recognize the necessity and value of professional education after school; 3) In 62,8% of answers the respondents express doubts, and the authors of 23,3% answers deny the value of complicated and expert labor in Russia; 4) 53,3% of adolescent’s answers reflect the wish to leave Russia or thoughts of such possibility.
Conclusions. 1. In the hierarchy of values and sense orientations of modern adolescents in the area of preliminary professional self-determination, the most expressed values are self-development, qualitative education, career achievements, personal success, the perspectives of professional development and decent wages. 2. The adolescents demonstrate a high level of orientation in the current social and economic situation (the economic crisis in Russia) and admit that positive changes in society should be determined by the recognition by society of the value of complicated and skilled labor, the value of honest labor and the value of labor and education exactly in Russia. 3. The data of the study contains widely represented answers without justification, which may reflect the status of the moratorium in the value-sense self-determination of adolescents in the area of labor and vocational education. 4. The current economic situation in Russia is perceived by the surveyed adolescents as unfavorable. More than half of respondents consider the possibility of getting an education and/or moving to a permanent residence abroad as a variant of their professional future.
Available Online: 07.09.2018
Relevance. The relevance of the research is caused by the need of more detailed studying of the emotional and personal well-being of modern students for the purpose of rendering psychological assistance to them on its optimization.
Objective. The work purpose — the analysis of various aspects of emotional and personal well-being of students. Methods: "Self-assessment of Emotional and Personal Well-being (SEPWB)" of G.A. Glotova and L.V. Karapetyan, "Social and psychological adaptation" of K. Rogers and R. Diamond and "Attributional Style Questionnaire" of M. Seligman.
Samples: the main sample - students (n=430), comparison samples – non-student youth (n=608) and convicts (n=99).
Results. By a method of SEPWB it is shown that students on set of parameters of a self-assessment of emotional and personal well-being occupied an intermediate position between the group of non-student youth where estimates are higher student's and group of convicts where estimates of emotional and personal well-being the lowest; in a number of parameters of a method of SEPWB age distinctions between "younger" (17-20 years) and "senior" (21-25 years) student's groups are received; there were no significant differences between the female and male subgroups of students in direct comparison without taking their age into account, but when divided into two age subgroups (17-20 and 21-25 years old), gender differences were observed; a number of correlations of parameters of the SEPWB method and indicators of "Social and psychological adaptation" method of C. Rogers and R. Diamond and "Attributional Style Questionnaire" method of M. Seligman were obtained; four types of the students differing with the level of a self-assessment of emotional and personal well-being on the basis of the SEPWB index – two extreme types and two intermediate are allocated: students with the SEPWB high index, with the increased index, with the reduced index and the low index of SEPWB.
Conclusions. The results confirm the possibility of using the "Self-assessment of emotional and personal well-being" method for studying the age and gender differences between students, as well as characteristic types of experience and assessment of their inner well-being.
Relevance of the study is due to the need for more detailed researching of categorization of synonymous ranges of names of basic emotions by the energy characteristics “intensity” and “power”.
Objective. Construction of circular categorical scales of the energy characteristics “intensity” and “power” in the spherical 6-dimensional model of emotions and analysis of language organization of the semantic structure of perception of their names.
Methods. Psychophysical method of revealing mechanisms for structuring semantics in linguistic consciousness based on a neuropsychological spherical model of vector coding of emotional-cognitive operations of detection and differentiation of signals E.N. Sokolov. Method of direct supra-threshold measurement of the subjective value of semantic differences between the names of emotions. Method of multidimensional scaling ALSCAL of subjective differences. The method of modeling the subjective semantic structure in the form of a spherical 6-dimensional Euclidean space. Method of measuring subjective characteristics in the form of circular scales in 2-dimensional subspaces. Methods for grouping and segmention lexical units based on the threshold values of their semantic differences.
The experiment involved 152 people aged 19 to 22 years.
Results. Circular scales of energy characteristics of «intensity» and «power» of emotions are constructed in the spherical 6-dimensional model of the semantic structure of the names of emotions by the combination in pairs of distinctive features-axes “inhibition/excitation” – “variability/stability” and “closeness /openness” – “acceptance/rejection” respectively. 8 and 10 categorical groups of synonyms are highlighted on the “intensity” and “power” scales with gradual values “norm” – “deviation from the norm”. The categories of “intensity” and “power”, expressing a high degree of manifestation of emotions, prevail. The general content for all members of each of the synonymous series on the “intensity” and “power” scales is indicated through their enumeration.
Conclusions. The mechanism of semantic grouping of the names of emotions into categorical classes and segmentation them among themselves has a uniform character based on the computation of differences and belongs to the energy characteristics “intensity” and “power” of emotions as well as the qualitative characteristic of the tone.
Keywords: multidimensional scaling;
the subjective semantic circular scales “intensity” and “power” in the spherical 6-dimensional space;
names of emotions;
categorical property of circular scales;
Available Online: 07.09.2018
Relevance. The motivation for this work stems from the fact that there are an insufficient number of tools in the Russian psychology that are suitable to investigate the content of human goals.
Objective. Development of a new method for investigating the content of human goals.
Methods. The method of incomplete sentences; clinical conversation; a modification of the projective technique of R. Emmons "Assessment of Personal Aspirations".
Results. A modification of the method of R. Emmons "Assessment of Personal Aspirations" is carried out. The changes made in the proposed version concern not only the incomplete sentences presented to the respondent for their completion, but also the scales of evaluation of personal aspirations (goals): their content, sequence of presentation, and the assessments used. For the analysis of human goals the following 17 scales are introduced: importance, clarity, difficulty, effort, the ability to focus, the degree of enthusiasm, joy, frustration, success in recent times, the probability of success, the influence of circumstances, control over one’s actions, progress, importance for one’s family, the degree of social utility, support, external-internal cause. The estimates of the proposed scales use six-point graduation: from 0 to 5. All the innovations made in the methodology are justified and the necessity of their implementation is shown. The author's interpretation of the data obtained includes: analysis of the content of the selected aspirations (goals) and their classification, which consists in revealing regularly reproduced goals, analog goals and development goals; analysis of the goals by separate scales on the basis of the respondent's evaluation judgments and by the connection of scales with each other; assessment of the influence of the goals on each other, which becomes harmonious or disharmonious. The approbation of the method and possible spheres of its application are discussed.
Conclusions. The declared method is correct, has a great potential for expanding the interpretation and allows one to better understand both the content of the goals and the means for achieving them.
Available Online: 07.09.2018
Relevance. Today there are no real models of the human brain's heuristic activity. In this regard, now it is absent real models of heuristic activity of the human brain, according to the accumulated experimental material, the possibilities of modeling two basic principles of the operation of real neural networks of the human brain was presented.
Goal. The proving of real neuroemulator possibility for system synthesis as a model of heuristic behavior of human brain.
Methods. We propose the numerical repetition of electroencephalogram registration (EEG) and construct the special matrix of their (EEG) comparison. For neuroemulator we propose the numerical repetition and choice value of weight of coefficient wi0for any diagnostic parameters xi(like for real EEG).
Conclusions. It is shown that such two procedures (reverberation and chaos) are identical to the heuristic activity of the brain. The brain selects the main xi* from the set of xi variables and at the same time we move from the phase space m to the new phase space with little dimension n (n<<m). The choice of the main xi*is a problem of system synthesis (finding of the order parameters). It is realized at the expense of reverberation and chaos to neural networks. We must mark: the artificial neuron nets emphasize demonstrate such behavior at every time.