A short version of the Hardiness Test:Psychometric properties and organizational application
The paper discusses the role of hardiness in organizations and the issues of its assessment. The results of a study aimed at development and validation of a short 24item Russian version of the Hardiness Survey by D.A. Leontiev and E.I. Rasskazova are presented. Using a student sample data (N=1285), a subset from the set of 45 existing items were selected for the short version that was subsequently validated in a large process plant employee sample (N=4647). Using confirmatory factor analysis, a onedimensional structure of the test was supported (with a single hardiness factor and two independent method factors corresponding to systematic bias associated with regular and reversescored items). The resulting shortened scale showed high reliability (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.91). Convergent validity was demonstrated by predictable associations with other measures of psychological wellbeing, including dispositional optimism, optimistic attributional style, hope, general selfefficacy, tolerance for ambiguity, subjective vitality, life satisfaction, work satisfaction, and intrinsic motivation in academic and professional domains. The resulting short version of the Hardiness Survey can be recommended for diverse samples.
Available online since: 30.06.2013
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