In article influence of personal meanings theory of thinking of O.K. Tikhomirov on studies of consciousness and selfunderstanding is discussed. Proves, that processes of become aware of himself are indissolubly connected with formation of operational senses. The sense is considered as cognitive a phenomenon caused by knowledge the person receives during thinking. At the same time the sense is also such generation of existential experience of the subject which is based on comprehension of limitation by it cognitive rational schemes of knowledge of the world. Affirms, that the most perspective direction of psychological research of a problem of selfunderstanding is the combination cognitive and existential ways of the analysis of generation of sense.
The article shows the role of the attachment system (child-mother interactions) in development of a wide spectrum of individual personality characteristics. Emo tional attachment of the child to mother is considered as a complicated system of internal regulation and a basis of typology of mental development. Results of a series of empirical studies show the connection between the type of attachment, formed at the early stages of child development, and characteristics of his/her au tonomy, self-concept, self-esteem and empathy in preschool and middle childhood.
In the literature on professional self-determination there is a notion about a successful choice of a profession as conscious, independent and responsible. The analysis of errors of senior pupils when they choose a profession has shown, that the most common reason of errors is low consciousness of the main factors of the choice – «I want» and «I can». Therefore it is necessary to start the psychological support of professional self-determination of teenagers with their personal self-determination as a necessary stage of professional self-determination.