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Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology, 2017, 2, 135 p.

To the 115th anniversary of Pyotr Yakovlevich Galperin (1902—1988)

Semyonov I.N. (2017). Personological reflection of life creation P.Ya. Galperin and his psychological-pedagogical and historical-methodological activities at Moscow University. Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology, 2, 3-29

The article is an attempt of a scientific analysis of psychological and pedagogical works and historical-methodological research by P.Ya. Galperin, who is widely known as one of the most influential domestic psychologists of the second half of the 20th century and who held a position of the professor of the Faculty of Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University. The introduction states that the fundamental works of P.Ya. Galperin had a significant impact not only on the development of a number of areas of psychological science and educational practice, but also for teaching them the basics in philosophical and psychological faculties of Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1940-1980-ies. It is noted that the developed by P.Ya. Galperin original concept and an innovative method based on fundamental philosophical grounds, and he rightfully possessed the deserved reputation of one of the largest theorists of psychological science. The following are 12 key stages of life P.Ya. Galperin. The ten main directions of his scientific and pedagogical activity are characterized. Detail reflected the development of P.Ya. Galperin and his scientific school of General and pedagogic psychology of the formation of creative thinking. Highly valued pedagogical activity of P.Ya. Galperin at Moscow University. Given the facts of the development of the heritage of P.Ya. Galperin in problem field of modern anthropology.

Received: 08/23/2017

Accepted: 09/07/2017

Pages: 3-29

DOI: 10.11621/vsp.2017.02.03

Keywords: Galperin P.Y.; general psychology; pedagogical psychology; developmental psychology; history of psychology; methodology; subject of psychology; orientation; mental and ideal acts; interiorization; scientific notions; stage-by-stage formation of mental acts; creative thinking; activity; education;

By: Semionov I.N.;

Available Online: 10.09.2017


Theoretical studies

Tolochek V.A. (2017). Phenomenon of psychological niches in space of sports activity. Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology, 2, 30-45

Objectives of the study: to analyze the social, psychological and biological determinants of the activity and success of athletes; Describe the phenomenon of "psychological niches" on the model of sport. The article analyzes the results of a survey of more than 150 people - high-ranking sportsmen, freestyle wrestlers, classical and judo; Polls of coaches of the highest category (12 people); Materials of literary sources. The study showed that in the sport of higher achievements (SHA), the effects of joint activity of the subjects are systematically manifested, the consequence of which is the selection and fixing of athletes with certain individual psychological features (physique, typological properties of the nervous system, functional asymmetry, personal characteristics, styles of activity) in Certain types and specializations. In different sports and specializations, stable proportions of representatives of different types (physique, nervous system properties, functional asymmetry, personal characteristics, and styles) are preserved, as well as the success characteristic of each type in tournaments and different "ranges" of their success. Formed among athletes different types of activity styles are focused on the actualization of different stable segments of "activity spaces". These effects, determined by the interaction of social, psychological and biological conditions, are called "psychological niches", the characteristic features of which are: ordering in space and time of interactions of subjects; A limited set of mutually complementary types of adaptation of subjects in a dynamic environment; Manifestations are not single, but special, typical; Adaptation of subjects to a part of environmental conditions, as a sufficient and necessary condition for their success; Propensity to master subjects by typical operational complexes (systems, "blocks" of actions); Orientation on typical features of partners and environmental conditions; Success with interactions with typical partners (rivals), etc.

Received: 06/28/2017

Accepted: 07/19/2017

Pages: 30-45

DOI: 10.11621/vsp.2017.02.29

Keywords: space of sports activities; psychological niches; social, psychological and biological determinants of the success of athletes;

By: Tolochek, Vladimir A.;

Available Online: 10.09.2017

Druzhilov S.A. (2017). Professional-destructive activity as a manifestation of professional marginalization and deprofessionalization. Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology, 2, 45-63

The object of research — destructive manifestations in professional activity and labor behavior, as well as the processes of deprofessionalization of individual and group subjects of labor. The definitions of “professional deformations” and “professional destructions” are analyzed. The difference in the essence of these concepts, reflecting the effect of different psychological mechanisms, is shown. “Professional deformation” leads to distortions in the structure of work activity or personality traits. “Professional destruction” leads to destruction (or destructive construction) of the structure of activity (changing its focus on other goals and results) or personality (orientation to the opposite labor and life values). The destructive effect is connected with the meaning-forming function of the motive that replaces the normative goal of the performed professional activity with another goal — personally significant and useful for the given performer, but socially harmful. “Pseudo-professionalism” (“false” professionalism) of the individual and group subject of labor is analyzed. Deprofessionalization of the subject is associated with the loss of professional identity, the destruction or non-acceptance of professional values. The problems of adaptation of a true professional in the group of pseudo-professionals (professional marginals) are considered. Conclusion: A profession as a social institution can counteract destructive processes of deprofessionalization of subjects of labor (primarily group ones) through the implementation of expert functions of professional associations.

Received: 06/09/2017

Accepted: 06/23/2017

Pages: 45-63

DOI: 10.11621/vsp.2017.02.45

Keywords: professional deformations ; destructive manifestations; labor behavior; professional activity; deprofessionalization; professional identity; false professionalism;

By: Druzhilov, Sergey A;

Available Online: 10.09.2017


Empirical studies

Lobanova Yu.I. (2017). Individual style of activity as a prognostic factor in the reliability of the driver. Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology, 2, 83-94

The article substantiates the influence of the planning style of activity on the reliability of the driver's activity. The work includes the description of the process of creating and approving the questionnaire "Individual style of driver's activity". The questionnaire contains questions assessing the means used by the driver to carry out activities (in particular, referring to the preservation of information on the road environment, schemes for organizing traffic on a particular route). Data on the reliability of the questionnaire (internal consistency and retest) are presented. The procedure for estimating the compensating effect of the planning style of the driver's activity on the reliability of the activity with a low speed of switching of attention is described. Compensation effect was determined by the ratio of the level of compliance with the requirements of the activity for the speed of switching of attention and the formation of a planning style of activity. The reliability of the drivers' activity was evaluated by a group of experts by recording the number and type of accidents involving drivers. The correlation between the reliability of the driver during life and during the last year was investigated. A higher level of reliability of driving activity is determined by a combination of a higher social status of the driver, with its greater connection with the transport sector, a more mature age, a more markedly planned style of activity, and a higher level of reliability of activities throughout life.

Received: 06/07/2017

Accepted: 06/21/2017

Pages: 83-94

DOI: 10.11621/vsp.2017.02.83

Keywords: Questionnaire “Individual style of driver’s activity”; operational reliability; prognosis; compensation; speed of attention switching;

By: Lobanova Yu. I.;

Available Online: 10.09.2017

Rikel A.M., Tuniyants A.A., Batyrova N. (2017). The concept of subjective well- being in the hedonistic and eudemonistic approaches. Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology, 2, 64-82

In different studies the concept of "subjective well-being" varies with related concepts and constructs ("life satisfaction", "happiness", "psychological well-being"). Hedonic traditions of interpretation of subjective well-being involve affective experiences as a central component, and eudmonistic variants emphasize the importance of self-realization processes of the individuals. Subjective well-being when considering it as satisfaction with life is determined by the objective conditions of human existence, but sometimes indirectly. The article describes the main results of an empirical study of eudemonic and hedonistic factors, conducted on 120 young people (students, 18-26, 60 male and 60 female). The hedonistic aspect of subjective well-being is connected both with the conditions of the environment and with personal characteristics, including eudemonistic. These objective and subjective characteristics can be called factors that determine the level of subjective well-being, but since it performs regulatory functions and directs the transforming activity of the subject, it is more correct to talk about the interdependence of these parameters. Self-relationship is connected with a sense of subjective well-being - positive self-perception, self-interest and self-acceptance increase subjective well-being, but in combination with unfavorable external conditions (in particular, low life fullness), on the contrary, reduce the experience of happiness and satisfaction. At the same time, the most important thing in experiencing happiness and satisfaction with life in adolescence is the eudemonic characteristics of a person - self-belief, maturity and the value of positive relationships with others. Realization of the potential acts as the central factor of hedonistic aspects of subjective well-being.

Received: 06/07/2017

Accepted: 06/21/2017

Pages: 64-82

DOI: 10.11621/vsp.2017.02.64

Keywords: subjective well-being; psychological well-being; life satisfaction; external and internal factors of subjective well-being;

By: Rykiel, A.M.; Tuniyants, Аnna А.; Batyrova Nilyufar;

Available Online: 10.09.2017


Psychology to practice

Pryazhnikov N.S., Gusev A.N., Tyurin K.G., Samborskaya L.N. (2017). Development of information retrieval online technologies in professional counseling (for example, the expert system “Choose and Enter — CAE”). Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology, 2, 95-113

The article concerns the problem of developing online technologies for adolescents’ career guidance and professional consultation with regard to their huge interest in computer programs (games and other entertainments) on the one hand, and the apparent lack of science-based computer methods of professional self-determination, on the other hand. We analyze the positive and questionable aspects of the design and the practical use of online technologies in professional counseling compared to existing technologies used in the professional consultation. We also consider the capabilities and limitations of these online technologies in solving the basic problems of vocational guidance (information, diagnostic, moral and emotional support of the client, assistance in decision-making and career planning). For example, the development of the author's methodology of “Choose and Go” designed for adolescents’ online use, shows the problem facing the designers of such software products, solutions to these problems. The basic ideas of this methodology are: comprehensive assessment of select work on the basis of full consideration of the psychological structure of the work; the use of expert assessments of the extent to which components of professional activity correspond to the official list of the integrated groups of specialties; the use in the modes of the real and online professional counseling; the account not only the desires of a teenager, but his/her current and potential abilities.

Received: 06/01/2017

Accepted: 06/22/2017

Pages: 95-113

DOI: 10.11621/vsp.2017.02.95

Keywords: professional self-determination; vocational guidance; professional counseling; design of computer online technologies;

By: Pryazhnikov N.S.; Gusev, Aleksey N.; Tyurin, Konstantin G.; Samborskaya, L. N.;

Available Online: 10.09.2017


Methods

Petrenko V.F., Mitina O.V., Korostina M.A. (2017). Psychometric analysis of diagnostic indicators of the method “Fairy semantic differential”. Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology, 2, 114-135

The method “Fairy Semantic Differential”, during which a respondent should assess a number of fairy-tale characters according to a set of personal characteristics, is designed for the individual work of a psychologist with children 4—9 years old. Personality characteristics, according to which the characters are evaluated, are formulated in terms that parents, teachers use when dealing with children of this age. An analysis of the child's attitude to this or that fairy-tale character allows us to determine the specificity of his (her) moral-value sphere. The method also allows evaluating of real adults, who are significant for the child (parents, teachers, etc.) Comparison of fairy-tale characters' ratings with those of a significant adult makes it possible to reveal the specifics of the child's attitude to this adult. The article discusses quantitative indicators that can be calculated using the data of the answering the questionnaire. These indicators characterize the child’s personality, his (her) understanding of interpersonal relationships with surrounding people, dimension of categorical space of interpersonal perception, content of this categories and its hierarchy, the level of cognitive development in this area, the degree of socialization. The method allows measuring self-esteem indices. The results of an empirical study of Moscow primary schoolchildren using the method “Fairy Semantic Differential” are presented, during which a psychometric analysis of the indicators was conducted. It was shown that the cognitive complexity of interpersonal perception, determined by the method “Fairy Semantic Differential” is significantly higher among adults, does not correlate with intelligence tests. Socialization increases with age, is significantly higher among girls than among boys, partly correlates with known methods that measure the level of social adaptation of a child, the degree of differentiation of moral and conventional norms, verbal intellect. The analysis of self-esteem indices reveals significantly higher self-criticism among girls, than among boys.

Received: 05/29/2017

Accepted: 06/10/2017

Pages: 114-135

DOI: 10.11621/vsp.2017.02.114

Keywords: psychosemantics; repertory grids; Сказочный семантический дифференциал; psychodiagnostics; cognitive complexity; socialization; interpersonal perception; self-esteem; identification with significant adults;

By: Petrenko V.F.; Mitina O.V.; Korostina M. A.;

Available Online: 10.09.2017



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