Russia joined the European Higher Education Area (Bologna process), that made innovative changes in the organization of educational process in Russian universities an urgent issue. The article raises questions concerning the difficult position of the lecturer in the context of the restructuring of university life, the lecturer’s health and subjective well-being, productivity and quality of his work. It is argued, that innovative educational activity increases not only time, physical, professional, social load for the lecturer, but as well the load on his personality; the work of the lecturer in these conditions is becoming increasingly high-tech, requiring great intellectual and emotional engagement. The authors propose to consider the indicators of subjective well-being (somatic, mental, social, spiritual) of the educational process participants as one of the objective functions of pedagogical technologies development and as one of the indicators of pedagogical activity efficiency. The article covers in detail such factors of the productivity lecturers’ work as educational process automation and lecturers’ activity management. The authors note that the educational process automation through the use of complex forms of artificial intelligence is possible only if it is based on the intellectual potential created by previous generations of university lecturers and scientists. The idea is suggested about the need to save the teaching staff of universities and about the special responsibility of university management for developing the conditions for creative self-realization of teaching personnel. The organization and periodic certification of lecturers is analyzed as one of the areas of university management. The emphasis is placed on the importance of lifelong professional training of high school lecturers and education managers.
Keywords: innovative university;
automation of educational process;
quality of teaching activity;
the lecturer as a value of educational system;
certification of lecturers;
the management system of education quality;
Available Online: 30.10.2017
This year marks the 70th anniversary of the publication of the monograph by N.A. Bernshtein "On the construction of movements" and 60 years since the publication of his eighth essay "The urgent problems of the regulation of motor acts". In these works, for the first time, the problem of uncertainty in the organization (and dynamics of behavior) of all systems, which we now designate as homeostatic or systems of the third type, according to W. Weaver's classification, was first raised. This problem was voiced by N.A. Bernstein as the hypothesis of "repetition without repetition", within which it is possible (as suggested by Bernstein) to describe any motor acts. After a detailed study of the various types of motion in biomechanics, we ascertained that modern deterministic-stochastic science has approached its developmental boundary in the study of living systems, since the main thesis about the repeatability and predictability of the state of the biosystem (neuronets of the brain, the human psyche) is violated. We turn to the study of systems that are in a continuous chaotic regime of changes of any parameters xi of such (unstable) systems. The Eskov-Zinchenko effect, which is a quantitative proof of Bernshtein’s hypothesis of "repetition without repetition", is that the successively obtained samples xi (in one, unchanged state) demonstrate a kaleidoscope of statistical distribution functions f(x), i.e. fj(xi)≠fj+1(xi) for two neighboring registered (from one person) registered samples xi (i.e., for the jth and j+1th). This erases the boundaries between arbitrary and involuntary movements from the standpoint of their objective, statistical evaluation. Statistical instability of any received samples of parameters xi, which describe homeostatic systems, requires new concepts and new models - models of homeostasis.
The article presents the result of a series of five empirical studies. Across multiple samples with typical development we have established a set of relationships between decision making strategies in Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and such traits as intelligence (general, verbal), executive functions (shifting and inhibition), as well as personality traits of tolerance/intolerance for uncertainty and Big Five personality traits.
The series of empirical studies aimed at verifying a set of hypotheses regarding the role of intelligence and tolerance/intolerance for uncertainty as predictors of choice strategies in IGT, regarding the contribution of executive functions to the regulation of these strategies, as well as identifying the specifics of prognostic strategies of professionals whose occupation involves high risk – i.e., military leaders.
The main measure was Iowa Gambling Task. This task relies on the prognostic/anticipatory activity of the person playing the game that regulates the sequence of choices that they make from four decks of “cards” that have a probabilistic structure of gains and losses, unknown to the participant at the beginning. According to A. Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, emotional components play a key role in decision making regulation.
Studies 1 through 3 recruited undergraduate students and general population samples; studies 4 and 5 relied on samples of military leaders.
In addition to the IGT, we also measures a set of cognitive and personality traits, including executive functions (using the Go/No Go paradigm), intelligence (using ROADS and ICAR), tolerance-intolerance for uncertainty (using the NTN questionnaire), Big Five personality traits (using the TIPI questionnaire), and personal factors of decision making (using the LFR questionnaire).
The studies revealed significant and positive contributions of intelligence and executive functions (i.e., shifting and inhibition) to decisional efficiency and the development of choice strategies, thus implicating cognitive orienting as the key component of decision making in IGT. We also established a set of group differences in both strategies and patterns of the regulation of choices in IGT between military and non-military samples. We also found that it is specifically during early game stages (characterized by maximal uncertainty) that specific personality traits contribute most to decision making – tolerance for uncertainty was such a predictor for our non-military samples, and risk readiness acted as one in military leaders. Conventional Big Five personality traits did not contribute to participants’ performance in the IGT.
Available Online: 30.10.2017
The purpose of the review is to explore the transformation of ideas about the relationship of various parameters of self-esteem with subjective well-being, the productivity of educational activity and the success of a professional career. Iinitially, the level of self-esteem (high or low) was considered as the most important parameter. The studies show that people with a high level of self-esteem have more positive self-attitude, their subjective well-being is higher, they are less prone to depression and anxiety disorders, and they show more positive expectations about future achievements and relationships with other people. They are more persistent when meeting failures. On the other hand, the level of self-esteem does affect the productivity neither of the activity nor the quality of the relationship. In addition, high self-esteem is often a heterogeneous category, which includes not only the acceptance of one's ppositive qualities but also narcissistic and defensive components. The contradictory role of self-esteem level has prompted researchers to address other parameters of self-esteem: stability or instability and the contingencies of self-esteem. These parameters are closely related; they affect the subjective well-being and quality of activity and allow shedding lightt on the role of self-esteem in the mental life of a person. The analysis led to the conclusion that the identification and delineation of healthy and neurotic contingencies of self-esteem is a promising area for further research, which can help in the formation of healthy self-esteem in children and adolescents.
The problem of differentiation of personal profiles based on MMPI is traditionally solved either theoretically with help of the 2- or 3-peak coding system, or is empirically based on the results of a cluster analysis of clinical scales. In the first case, the encoding system looks unreasonably complicated. In the second case, the results are vulnerable to criticism, on the one hand, due to interference of the scales themselves, and, on the other hand, due to not taking into account measurement errors and due to restrictions for clusters differentiated. In this paper, we propose an alternative based on the latent profile analysis of restructured clinical scales of MMPI-2. Based on the normative sample of the validation of the Russian-language Minnesota multifactorial personality questionnaire, second version, (MMPI-2, N = 1443), four types of latent profiles were identified: normative one with mean values for most scales and a small peak on the Hypomanic Activation scale, “neurotic” profile with an increase in the “neurotic triad” scales, “psychopathic-like” profile with high scores on all scales and peaks on the scales of schizophrenia, paranoia and psychasthenia, and “defensive / suppressive” profile with extremely low scores on all scales and a small peak on the scale of low level of positive emotions. Profiles’ comparison by the content and supplementary scales of MMPI-2 and "Big Five" traits suggests that in those having the “psychopathic-like” profile, the risk of externalized problems is maximal and the risk of internalized problems is high. Those with the “neurotic” profile have a high risk of internalized problems, while their distinctive trait is the experience of social discomfort. The analysis of “defensive” profile suggests possible difficulties associated with chronic suppression of emotions, in particular, somatization and sudden affect expressions.
Based on the critical examination of existing models of the psychological analysis of the lesson (PAL), we suggest a model of PAL, developed from the positions of the activity approach (A.N. Leontiev, P.Ya. Galperin, N.F. Talysina, V.V. Davydov, D.B. Elkonin). As the critical review shows, the basic models of the PAL in traditional didactics are related to the evaluation of the degree of implementation in the lesson of conditions for the effective functioning of students' mental processes. This model is based on the idea of a quality lesson as a lesson that maximizes the use of various types of mental processes (processes of thinking, memory, attention, imagination, etc.). From the point of view of the activity approach, psychological analysis should presuppose an assessment of the extent to which the activities that children realize in the lesson are adequate to the goals of the lesson set by the teacher. So a quality lesson is a lesson in which students carry out activities psychologically adequate to the goals set. The article proposes five criteria for the PAL, which correspond to the principles of the activity approach: 1) the specifics of setting the objectives of the lesson, 2) the adequacy of the actions performed by the students, the stated goals; 3) the features of action means, 4) the features of control and feedback and 5) the features of assessing the performance of students' actions. An example of a lesson analysis scheme developed on the basis of the proposed model is given.