According to modern concepts, the idea of a paradigm is associated with a certain common approach within the natural sciences in description of a large class of processes, objects, systems. If weâre talking about a global paradigm, this means such (global) paradigm should cover the huge classes of objects in nature and society. Today we highlight three global paradigms throughout modern science, which cover three global clusters of all processes and objects of living nature and inanimate nature. W. Weaver was first who proposed such statements in 1948 in his famous publication âScience and complexityâ. However, during nearly 70 years almost no one paid any attention to these statements (though he spoke very simply about the most important things). W. Weaver has divided all objects and systems in nature into three giant clusters: the simplest systems (simplicity), which are described now in the framework of deterministic theories and models, unorganized complexity (stochastic system) and system of third type â organized complexity (organized complexity). Under the system of the third type he understood all living systems, but no special features in their organization has been identified and learned by W. Weaver. It is now clear that he could not do the study within the framework of modern science because this requires a different (third) paradigm and different science.
The article describes the methodological analysis of three tendencies of the psychological cognition development for last three decades. Firstly, the author analyzes the psychological studies of the information processing during the human thought, sometimes based on intuitive experience or logical knowledge. It is shown that a person has two different but interacting systems for the information processing according to the dual-process theories of human thinking.
One system is focused on the heuristics, producing intuitive responses and the other one is based on analytical processing. Their descriptions correspond to the psychologistsâ ideas of the Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory (CEST) by S. Epstein and two cognition styles â rational and intuitive ones. Such scientific ideas are indissolubly linked with the existence of the integrated continuum of the methods for the world understanding: from paradigmatic to narrative and then to thesaurus. Secondly, it is proved that a modern person lives in the multidimensional world, consisting of the empirical, socio-cultural and existential realities. The events and situations in these realities are understood by people after the types âunderstanding-knowledgeâ, âunderstandinginterpretationâ and âunderstanding-comprehensionâ. Thirdly, it is reasoned that a subject does not cognize the existential reality but comprehend. Therefore, the existential experience of a subject naturally includes not only unconscious knowledge and experiences, but also incomprehensible and mysterious things. It is proved that the incomprehensibility of the reality is one of the attributes of the being. The incomprehensibility does not mean the essential impossibility of understanding. Comprehension represents such type of understanding which is focused on the phenomena and the objects of the world, requiring extraordinary efforts to be understood. Comprehension is such apprehending of the whole thing, the parts of which a subject cannot cognize and describe in details for any reasons. Mystery was analyzed as a scientific and psychological but not mystical and fantastic phenomenon. Mystery is defined on the basis of psychology of thought in which a problem situation and a problem differ.
This article considers the possibilities of bringing together of the two psychological scientific fields: pathopsychology and social psychology. The realization of that approach will enable to expand opportunities of analyzing the irrational and destructive forms of social behaviour and registering various forms of pathological adaptation described in pathopsychology quite clearly. As a possible variant, there are notions of modern psychoanalysis about different types of personality structure which form in the course of interpersonal relationships during individual ontogeny. Within the framework of the proposed hypothesis about the possibility of employing pathopsychological explanatory constructs in relation to social-psychological phenomena, psychoanalytical model is transferred onto social relations. It discusses the possibilities of making use of the pathological phenomena (delusional formations, psychological defenses, addictions) for the interpretation of inadequate relations between a subject and society. The principal structures of personality organization correspond to different variants of social relationships.
Development and state of the art of psychological studies related to the Internet mediation are analyzed. Current tendencies and prospects of such studies are thoroughly discussed. Among these studies such parameters as distribution, reputational leveling and anonymity need to be specially mentioned. Dispersion or distant collaboration between almost or totally unfamiliar people is related to attempts to state an empirical quotient C, or collective intelligence for small groups. Such quotient is believed to be relatively disconnected to the individual IQs of the group participants. While such attempts lack theoretical base, they are characteristic for applied psychological studies. For bloggers, networkers or videogame players reputational leveling means extension of their reputations, namely the level gained in a videogame, or credibility in the communities of users of multiple Web services. Reputational leveling may be the result of real achievements or of well-organized self-presentations. In the cyberspace there is only partial anonymity, as it is seen in the field of cybersecurity and struggle against cybercrime. A recent tendency is to mark network activity of networkers, namely their âlikesâ or âdislikesâ. After these marks are collected, numerous Big Data methods help correlate particular samples of these marks with both socio-demographical and psychological characteristics of the users. Once this is done, targeted advertisements can be sent out. This methodology is said to be exploited recently during important election campaigns. Among the possible means of confronting such influences we should mention a phenomenon of alternative identities. Networkers were earlier found to develop and support alternative identities which partly differ from the networkersâ real-life personalities. Although alternative identities are often supported independently of the aims connected with obstruction to sending out the targeted advertisements, this phenomenon may decrease the effectiveness of any impact related to the social networks.
By: Voiskounsky A.E.;
Available Online: 30.04.2017
This article reports the results of empirical research, dedicated to the features of the relationship between perceived corporate culture and employeeâs organizational identification. The influence and the nature (a moderator or a mediator) of the variable âperson-organization fitâ were studied. Participants were 92 employees of for-profit companies. The data was mathematically processed using a correlation analysis and a partial correlation analysis. The data indicate that the person-organization fit (as a moderator) influenced the relationship between perceived corporate culture of open paradigm and organizational identification. Thus, the person-organization fit is an intermediate variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation. This suggests that the more employees believe that his values fit the organizational ones, which characterize the open paradigm, the more he will identify with it. It may be assumed that the revealed relationship is bilateral, because, probably, these two variables determine each other. A further perspective of this research area is to clarify the obtained findings and to check other variables, which can influence given interrelation.
In this study we tested the hypothesis about advantage of academic motivation profile with dominating intrinsic motivation over another profile with equally high intrinsic, self-esteem and controlled types of motivation (and low level of amotivation). Latent class analysis confirmed the suggestion that these two profiles are most typical in university students. Students with high and dominating intrinsic motivation showed highest curiosity, consistency of interests, perceived academic control and academic achievements but didnât differ from students with high controlled motivation by the perseverance of effort that was high in both types. Generally the results show that high extrinsic controlled motivation is a disadvantageous factor that decreases student motivational potential. The results are discussed from the point of view of self-determination theory and need model of motivation.
This article is devoted to the investigation of the role, which the systemic reflection plays in the organization, initiation and direction of the process of professional becoming. Reflection is considered as the most important regulative component of personality, which opens to the human the possibility of self-regulation and self-management that allows him to be an active subject of professional becoming. We distinguish three types of reflexive processes, which support the subjective orientation of the process of professionalization and open to the specialists the opportunity to âproblematize themselvesâ. âProblematization of oneself â on the basis of personal preferences and meanings, which are extracted from the direct experience of prior psychotechnical work, orients the specialists regarding the future steps of professionalization. We discuss the psychotechnical tools, which open the possibility of reflection for working out significant aspects of professionalism. We give self-reports of students who analyzed their professional possibilities by the proposed psychotechnical means.