The article describes the methodological analysis of three
tendencies of the psychological cognition development for last three decades.
Firstly, the author analyzes the psychological studies of the information
processing during the human thought, sometimes based on intuitive
or logical knowledge. It is shown that a person has two different but interacting
systems for the information processing according to the dual-process theories
of human thinking.
One system is focused on the heuristics, producing intuitive
responses and the other one is based on analytical processing. Their descriptions
correspond to the psychologists’ ideas of the Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory
(CEST) by S. Epstein and two cognition styles — rational and intuitive ones.
Such scientific ideas are indissolubly linked with the existence of the integrated
continuum of the methods for the world understanding: from paradigmatic to
narrative and then to thesaurus. Secondly, it is proved that a modern person lives
in the multidimensional world, consisting of the empirical, socio-cultural and
existential realities. The events and situations in these realities are understood
by people after the types “understanding-knowledge”, “understandinginterpretation”
and “understanding-comprehension”. Thirdly, it is reasoned that
a subject does not cognize the existential reality but comprehend. Therefore, the existential experience of a subject naturally includes not only unconscious
knowledge and experiences, but also incomprehensible and mysterious things.
It is proved that the incomprehensibility of the reality is one of the attributes of
the being. The incomprehensibility
does not mean the essential impossibility of
understanding. Comprehension represents such type of understanding which is
focused on the phenomena and the objects of the world, requiring extraordinary
efforts to be understood. Comprehension is such apprehending of the whole
thing, the parts of which a subject cannot cognize and describe in details for any
reasons. Mystery was analyzed as a scientific and psychological but not mystical
and fantastic phenomenon. Mystery is defined on the basis of psychology of
thought in which a problem situation and a problem differ.
DOI: doi 10.11621/vsp.2017.01.17
By: Znakov V.V.;
Available Online: 04/16/2017
In the article author analyzes the development of psychological culture as an important task of the professionalization of high school psychologists. The following conditions of the psychological culture development are highlighted: professional situations modeling; usage of interactive methods; student-centered approach to learning; organization of environment, which enables communication and collaboration of students, reflection and creativity. The content of the course “Diagnostics of coping with difficult situations” designed by the author is presented. Goals and forms of knowledge control are determined, the content is presented. Practical classes techniques are described in detail: a) methods of interactive work for the assimilation of the theoretical material; b) reacting when there are difficulties in understanding of the educational information; c) the organization of joint activities and communication of students; d) polylogue when analyzing the results used in the workshop techniques; å) ways to increase reflection. The effects of the used methods are discussed. The results of the course based on feedback from students, the dynamics of the perception of a difficult situation are analyzed. The results of the course are related to the criteria of psychological culture