Relevance. Due to centennial anniversary of soviet psychology, we would like to make analysis for the history of its institutional and subject formation within the context of Russian human study evolution, including its prerequisites before revolution and after-soviet development.
Objective. Characterize briefly, within the context of reflexive science studies and art process personology, psychology development directions and institutions, role of key scholars, summarize major achievements, including unique identity of soviet psychological science.
Methods. Analysis for subject and institutional aspects of Russian psychology evolution, describing institutions where major schools were residing and where key leaders and participants fulfilled their duties.
Results. First part contains and depicts science studies and institutional approach on presenting the historical span of Russian psychology. Second part depicts evolution of institutions, leaders‚Äô succession and interaction of schools and directions established. Final part contains generalized conclusions on development logics and achievements of soviet psychology as preconditions to further after-soviet establishment of contemporary (Russian) psychology.
Conclusions. Soviet psychology based human studies existing before revolution legitimately succeeds the preceding evolution phase and provides evident basis for further development of psychological science during after-soviet period. Soviet scholars have developed ample materialist-dialectic methodology for study of psyche, which is the system of psychological knowledge from perspective of activity approach that had quite peculiar impetus on contemporary psychology. Currently legacy of soviet psychology interacts broadly and assimilates with foreign up-to-date approaches within the context of XXI century challenges.
Relevance. There is no understanding of the role of risk perception in medical decision-making, as well as the cognitive representations and implicit theories of risk of doctors. The concept of an intellectual-personal human potential helps us investigate the links between those levels of risk perception and the specifics of decision-making.
Objective. The hypothesis about the relationship between cognitive representations of risk, the preference towards certain choices in verbal tasks, and the engagement of implicit risk theories in the regulation of choices was tested.
Methods. 103 people aged 21-73 years participated, 59 doctors, and 44 realtors. Medical Risk Scale (SHMR, MRS), Cognitive Risk Representations Inventory (CRR) and Implicit Risk Theories Questionnaire (ITR) were applied.
Results. Risk representations are weakly related, though the variables are more integrated within the same level. The differences between the groups were found in: some implicit risk theories; average risk assessment; estimates of the riskiness of situations and the likelihood of a negative outcome. The groups also differed in preferences of risk reduction strategies, depending on a subjective riskiness. Thus, the inventories reflect different levels of risk perception, mediated by the professional specifics of the participants. Among doctors evaluation of riskiness of the situation is linked with the lack of control; their implicit risk theories, in general, have little relationship with the representations of specific risks.
Conclusion. Implicit risk theories and cognitive representations of risks appear as different levels of procedural regulation of decision-making; Inventories we developed are good tools for diagnosing representations of medical risks.
Relevance. The problem of finding the meaning of human existence is relevant at all times and in all Nations. The study of this problem has a pronounced interdisciplinary character. In the presented work interests of psychology of art, semiotics of cinema, psychology of religion, ethics intersect, and for processing of the received data the modern mathematical apparatus of multidimensional statistics is used.
Objective. Based on the perception of the film on the Buddhist theme to explore the depth of its understanding by a group of young Russians: to highlight the system of personal constructs (Kelly) perception of the film; to determine the cognitive complexity of the group consciousness of respondents-viewers; to analyze personal meanings that have arisen in different viewers with a particular understanding of the film.
Methods. We used methods of psychosemantic research using the method of triadic choice J. Kelly and the subsequent scaling of characters of the movie and the added roles on the personal designs made by respondents. The respondents, 38 graduate students, undergraduates and students of different faculties of Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Results. Application of the method of triadic choice G. Kelly made it possible to reveal a system of personal constructs and on their basis to build a semantic space, set by the basic categories-factors, through the prism of which the perception and awareness of the film. Received 8 interpretable factors, showing the elements of the fabric of the film and made the focus of understanding of the respondents: "Youth, inexperience ‚ÄĒ Wisdom, maturity", "Selfishness ‚ÄĒ Humanity", "Focus on the sacredness ‚ÄĒ Focus on secular life and society," "Passivity, inertia ‚ÄĒ Active life position", "Rationality ‚ÄĒ Following the passion", "Openness to experience ‚ÄĒ Conformism", "Afflicted, miserable ‚ÄĒ Enjoying life", "Masculinity ‚ÄĒ Femininity".
Conclusions. Viewers of a feature film realize its meaning in different ways and at different levels. Some are aware of it at the level of the storyline and evaluation of the characters; others are aware of the philosophical, existential meaning of the work and relate it to their spiritual quest. The work of art as a carrier of the meanings inherent in it requires the viewer to actively comprehend, initiates the work of thought, counter spiritual creativity of understanding.
Relevance. 90thXX century is a very dramatic period of modern Russian history. During this period, dramatic changes have been in different spheres (economic, political, international etc.) in Russia, also values and social norms have changed dramatically. Memory lane and representations of this period influence on their representation of modern times. Therefore, it is very important to investigate historical memory of this period.
Objective. The goal of the study is to investigate psychological aspects of 90th‚ÄôXX century in Russia historical memory and to compare contemporaries‚Äô associations with youth‚Äôs associations with the epoch of 90th.
Method. Questionnaire ‚ÄúRepresentations of 90thXX century in Russia‚ÄĚ (E. Sinelnikova)
Sample. 154 participants, 60 participants at the main stage of the study: 29 participants youthful age (mean age ‚Äď 19 years), 31 adulthood, contemporaries of 90th(mean age ‚Äď 52,1 year).
Results. The most frequent associations with 90thare financial crisis (devastation), deficit, deliberation, corruption, and perestroika (transformation in different spheres of society. Young participants associated the 90thwith corruption statistically significant more often than contemporaries of 90th. 90th‚Äôcontemporaries associated 90thwith perestroika statistically significant more often than students. The most important sources of information about 90thare: experience (for contemporaries), TV, films, newspapers and journals. Internet is an important source of information about 90thonly for the young people.
Conclusion. 90thXX century in Russia in young people‚Äôs representations are more associated with crime and riots. In contrast, in contemporaries‚Äô associations the epoch is more associated with transformations in different spheres of society and economic problems.
Relevance. The growing interest to studying foreign students and the creation of a favorable educational environment for them makes urgent to study the strategies of sociocultural adaptation of representatives of different cultures.
Objective. Identification of the coping strategies features and differences in the scales of sociocultural adaptation among foreign students, depending on their belonging to culture.
Methodology. Two questionnaires were used: the "Revised Sociocultural Adaptation Scale (SCAS-R)" (J. Wilson) and "Strategic Approach to Coping Scale - SACS" (Vodopyanova and E.S. Starchenkova). The study involved students from the CIS countries (Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, n = 65) and from China (n = 39), studying in Russian universities.
Results. Representatives of the CIS countries revealed dominance of the indirect and passive (cautious model of behavior) coping strategies. Prosocial coping strategy (seeking social support and entering into social contact) dominates among students from China. Also differences between groups on academic adaptation and the level of knowledge of the Russian language were found.
Conclusions. Representatives of the highly contextual and reactive culture (Chinese students) mostly difficult adapt to the specifics of education, the requirements of higher education and communication in the native language of the host country. The same type of culture underlies the formation of a prosocial coping strategy. Representatives of polyactive and polychronic culture (students from the CIS countries) are dominated by indirect and passive coping strategies.
Relevance. The quality of motivation characterizes the nature of urges. It is manifested in how much the motivation of a particular activity is connected with its process (intrinsic motivation) or with an alienated result (extrinsic motivation), or with intermediate types between them (E. Deci, R. Ryan). In the present study we examine how the quality of motivation of students' learning activity is associated with the experiences of pleasure, meaning, effort and void as their absence (in light of D. Leontiev‚Äôs three-dimensional model of activity-related experiences).
Objective. We aim to reveal relationships between the quality of motivation of learning activity and experiences related to this activity.
Methods.We used Activity-related Experiences Assessment inventory (AREA) to measure experiences in leisure and study, and Universal Perceived Locus of Causality Scale (UPLOC) to assess the quality of motivation. The correlation study was conducted on students sample of 17-24 years (M=18.35; SD=1.00).(N = 357).
Results. The connection of the pleasure experience in learning activity with its motivation increases monotonously when moving from controlled (external) to autonomous types of motivation, changing the minus sign to a plus; the void experience demonstrates reverse pattern. The meaning experience in general reveals similar dynamics to pleasure, but with some differences. The effort experience is insignificantly related to the most autonomous and least autonomous types of motivation, showing a significant positive relationship with the intermediate types of motivation in the middle of the autonomy continuum.
Conclusion. Significant correlations were observed between different types of motivation and experiences related to the same activity and nonsignificant and/or weak correlations between types of motivation and experiences related to different activities.
Relevance. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is widely employed in studies focused on possibility of substitution of human verbal and motor communication channels when such channels are lost due to stroke or trauma. One of the most promising examples of BCI technology is P300 BCI ‚Äď a system based on P300 component of visual evoked potential. Visual stimulation plays a key role in P300 BCI concept, and it is thus important to explore the influence of visual stimuli environment on user‚Äôs eye movements and BCI performance.
Objective. The objective was to explore the influence of the main components of P300 BCI visual environment, namely matrix stimuli size and spacing, on the movements of user's eyes during typing, the accuracy of typing, and the amplitude and latency of P300 component.
Methods. Sixteen healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Each subject participated in five experimental sessions, where P300 BCI matrix stimuli size and spacing varied from 1.22 and 0.73 to 2.43 and 1.45 degrees of visual angle. During each experimental session, subjects were typing in a certain text sequence using the BCI while their eye movements and EEG were being recorded.
Results. We found that the stimuli size significantly affected certain characteristics of user‚Äôs eye movements. The stimuli size and spacing, however, had no significant effect on the accuracy of the typing and the amplitude and latency of P300 component.
Conclusions. The results of the study can prove to be beneficial to the development of efficient visual stimuli environments for P300 BCI.
Relevance. It is one of very important tasks of modern neuroscience to investigate the psychological and psychophysiological mechanisms of body orientation processes. Particularly due to the growth in use of visualization and simulation technologies (virtual reality, projection displays, aircraft simulators). The application of such systems is often associated with mismatch between different sensory signals. One of the phenomena resulting from this mismatch is the self-motion illusion ‚Äď the perception of own movement by a motionless person observing a moving visual stimulus occupying a large part of field of view.
Objective. Investigation the role of optokinetic nystagmus in self-motion illusion. The virtual optokinetic drum rotating at 30, 45 and 60 deg/s was used as a stimulus. The drum was presented using CAVE virtual reality system. 17 healthy participants took part in the experiment. The slow phases of nystagmus during self-motion illusion perception were analyzed.
Results. The more the drum rotation speed, the more the illusion intensity and slow phases duration. Also the disturbances in slow phase realization led to increase the illusion intensity. The restoration of nystagmus reduced the illusion. Thus it was found that optokinetic nystagmus is a component of a human space orientation system and the nystagmus also adjusts the illusion perception. The effectiveness of application of CAVE virtual reality system in complicated cognitive processes investigation was proved.
Relevance.The altered states of consciousness (ASC) phenomena are widespread and have functional significance in the cultural and religious practices. The recognition of the fact that these states exists have become itself the basis of criticism of the ¬ędogmatic¬Ľ Marxist psychology. The lack of cultural-activity approach in the study of mystical and religious altered states hinders the theoretical equipment of practical work with subjects of these ASC and the making of conditions of interfaith dialogue of full value.
Objective.To examine the methodological potential of cultural-activity approach in the study of altered states of consciousness (including mystical/religious ASC‚Äôs) and to consider the methodical means in the solution of corresponding research tasks.
Methods.The methodological analysis of the problem of ASC in religious practices from the cultural-activity approach positions.
Conclusions.The comprehension of culturally predetermined ASC as functional organs of activity derives from Soviet tradition of dynamic systemic formations research and contributes to the notions of structure, function and development of ASC. An application of structural schemas of activity and consciousness to reveal the constitution of means, induction methods and psychological mechanisms of the ASC is justified. Author considers the capabilities of using pattern of psychical processes, action and more fractional units in the ASC analysis. The significance of productive criteria for ASC presence is pointed out, and the capabilities of religious ASC research methods are discussed in appliance with the principles of modern type of scientific rationality. Author analyses specific methods allowing to reconstruct the ASC phenomena in religious practices, their requirements and restrictions. Explanatory possibilities of cultural-activity approach allow to give a holistic and consistent interpretation to the psychical phenomena of the alteration of the state of consciousness.
By: Solenov, Igor V.;
Available Online: 01.12.2018
Relevance.Knowledge of the laws of emotion dynamics has not only theoretical, but also practical meaning: this knowledge is necessary to provide psychological assistance in solving the problem of maintaining relationships, to develop of emotional intelligence and regulation of emotions, to diagnose disorder of the emotion dynamics that underlies a number of affective disorders (such as depression).
Objective.Consideration of large (in terms of the number of experiments, subjects and factors studied) studies of Verduyn's group at the University of Leuven (Belgium) and Maastricht University (Netherlands). This group studied the duration of subjective experience of emotions of different types.
Methods. Review and analysis of modern Western studies of the duration of emotions and its determinants, their results and methods.
Results.The integration of data on the absolute and relative duration of emotions of certain types, as well as the contribution of such factors as the emotional intensity, the flow pattern, cognitive assessments, emotion regulation strategies, the social sharing, the cognitive processing of information about the emotional event has been done. The possibilities and limitations of the main methods of studying the emotion dynamics are revealed.
Conclusions. It is necessary to continue the research of the emotion dynamics of on the material of other age, professional, cultural groups. Also, a perspective direction is the study of the dynamics of other components (not just a subjective experience) of emotion.
Relevance.The effectiveness of the method of the gradual formation of intellectual actions, which was developed by P.Y. Galperin and his followers, has been repeatedly proved in research. However, several questions remain open, and their solution is very likely to facilitate an active implementation of the ideas of this scientific school in pedagogical practice at large. Among such questions is the issue of the mechanisms of ‚Äėteaching the actions with specified properties‚Äô.
Objective. 1) to analyse the results of the forming experiments in order to reveal the occurrences of change during the acquisition of the original structural organization of an action, 2) to provide a detailed rationale for the necessity to examine the role of the activity organization component in teaching intellectual actions with specified properties.
Method. The analysis on the proposition of the system approach that the object‚Äôs observed property is to be viewed as a result of the interactionamong the system elements.
Results. Three types of organizational changes have been observed in the course of acquisition by the student: 1) the restructuring of the action; 2) the restructuring of the relations in the set of interrelated actions; 3) the change of the original co-organization of the acting subjects.The hypotheses are made:1) about the existence of a functional link among the types of the action organization changes that have been identified; 2) about the existence of a prototypical organizational form that predetermines the way in which an acquirable intellectual action is structured.
Conclusion. The examination of the new research hypotheses will contribute to further understanding of the formation of the actions with specified properties.
Article, written to the 100th anniversary of Zoya Alexeevna Reshetova
The Index of articles published in ‚ÄúMOSCOW UNIVERSITY PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN‚ÄĚ in the year 2018