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Russian Psychological Society
The Faculty of Psychology. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
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Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology, 2014, 1, 128 p.

Theoretical and empirical studies

Znakov V.V.(2014). Cognitive and affective unconscious in understanding of the stranger as enemy . Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 3-15

In article on the example of growing number of the conflicts between adherents of Christian and Muslim values, and also the ethno-religious nature of terrorism the psychological reasons of understanding of foreign person not as friend, and as enemy are analyzed. Proved that in understanding of the stranger an important role plays not only conscious rational knowledge of the subject, but also unconscious and everyday concepts. The emphasis is placed on research of the cognitive and affective unconscious — extra conceptual irrational components of understanding of the stranger. It is proved that there are such spheres of human life which at all don’t accept rational knowledge. In similar spheres there is a radical contradiction between rational knowledge, an explanation and deep emotions, experiences. Deep attitudes and prejudices can’t be overcome logical arguments: they don’t rely on reasonable judgments and therefore they can’t be destroyed usual logic. The main issue on which attempt to answer is made, consists in the following: why at recognition of the fact of burning of the Koran or an act of girls from “Pussy Riot” group not only conscious rational explanations, but also unconscious components of behavioral reactions of the people speaking different languages and living in the different countries, are very similar? The explanation of this phenomenon in article develops in three directions. First, data that the subject makes many moral and religious decisions automatically, intuitively, unconsciously are provided. Secondly, from J. Piaget’s research follows that some operational schemes of actions can contradict ideas which the subject consciously already formulated. These ideas take higher place, than action schemes, and block their integration into conscious thinking. Thirdly, with reference to results of psychophysiological researches existence of filters locates in consciousness, making the appearance at correlation of the ancient and recently created cultural phenomena with less and more differentiated brain systems.

Pages: 3-15

Keywords: understanding; stranger; enemy; terrorism; the cognitive and affective unconscious;

By: Znakov V.V.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014

Tolochek V. A., Timashkova N. A., Denisova V. G.(2014). Professional making of subjects of the pedagogical activity: The positive and negative changes . Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 16-32

Tasks of the study: 1) Analysis of dynamics of subjects’ professional making (SPM) as evolutions in the aspects of professional development, professional destructions and professional burning out. 2) Isolation of intra-subject resources and extra-subject, combined with the dynamics SPM. Hypotheses: 1) Professional destructions and professional burning out are more expressed in teachers, than in other representatives of socionomic professions (educators). 2) Scarcities in the updating of intra- and extra-subject resources come out as the determinants of destructions and burning out. 3) Destructive processes in subjects grow from 35—45 years. 4) The initial phases of destructions and burning out are reflected adequately. Sample: 1) the teacher of secondary schools — 51 women at the age from 28 to 65 years (M=46.2; SD=8.6), with the length of employment from 7 to 42 years (M=23.9; SD=9.1); 2) the educators of children’s pre-school establishments — 34 women at the age from 26 to 65 years (M=46.4; SD=10.4), with the length of employment from 2 to 43 years (M=24.1; SD=10.3). Method is quasi-measurement. Basic conclusions: The dynamics SPM of teachers can be characterized as non-optimal; the using of resources — limited, fragmentary, partial; the dynamics SPM of educators — optimum; the use of resources, their mismatch with PSS are combined the increase of destructive processes from 35—45 years and with strengthening on the boundary of 55 years; with molding of professional outsider, or type of specialists, who support professionalism with the price of psychophysiological overvoltage. Teachers are more subjected to professional destructions and professional burning out, than educators. The first stages of burning out and destructions are reflected adequately by them.

Received: 09/22/2013

Pages: 16-32

Keywords: professional burnout; career; professional formation; subject; evolution; destruction;

By: Tolochek, Vladimir A.; Timashkova, Nadezhda A.; Denisova, Veronika G.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014

Pikulyova O.A.(2014). Social and psychological factors in choosing assertive tactics of self-presentation of the student youth.Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 33-46

The article presents the results of empirical research of the interaction between personal values and self-presentational behavior. The main hypothesis of the study was that there are differences in the value priorities and preference of tactics and strategies of self-presentation of personality caused by social (ethnic and cultural affiliation, region of residence, gender identity) and psychological (self-monitoring) factors. The study involved 209 students (average age of 20 years). In Vyborg for processing were accepted respondents defined their identity as Russians and reported as a religion, Orthodoxy, in Nalchik, the questionnaire respondents defined their identity as Kabardins or Balkars and reported as a religion Islam. In the result of the study revealed that there is a direct connection between the machines on individualism and manifestation assertive self-presentational behavior (level of significance p<0.001). Personality-focused values, which support the desire of the individual to material success and the individual’s social achievements, contribute to the orientation of the person on assertive strategy of self-presentation “Self-enhancement”, and socio-focused value orientations aimed at care about the welfare of others — hinder. Using assertive tactics and strategies of self-presentation is connected with a high level of self-monitoring, regardless of the ethnic and cultural differentiation.

Received: 09/15/2013

Pages: 33-46

Keywords: self-presentation; tactics and strategies of self-presentation; self-monitoring; personal values;

By: Pikulyova, Oksana A.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014

Sazonova E.V.(2014). The psychological aspect of adolescent interest in Harry Potter.Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 47-58

The article is devoted to the investigation of adolescents’ interest to the books about Harry Potter. Theoretically it is proved that these texts are written in the genre of fantasy, which is characterized by an initiative action of the hero, his decision to act.A preliminary research (1052 respondents, interviews, focus-groups, instrument “associations”, “unfinished clauses”) has revealed that adolescents’ interest focuses at the hero’s action and its characteristics — the place andmagic tools. The principal research was conducted by the instrument “semantic differential” using scales derived from the preliminary research (214 respondents at the age of 13—18). The research has revealed the following: most attractive for adolescents are those aspects of “Harry Potter” by J. Rowling that are connected with an initiative of the hero, his/her goal achievement, proactive action. Such an action is possible if the personage applies own efforts (agility, skill, desire to win, commitment); possesses magic tools that help to be powerful, capable, secure and free and unembarrassed; acts in special environment — unpredictable, dangerous, hard, meaningful. The real world is perceived by teenagers as grey, sad, devoid of purpose. It deprives action.

Received: 11/19/2013

Pages: 47-58

Keywords: modern adolescents; adolescents’ interest; semantic differential;

By: Sazonova, Elena V.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014


Review, analytical studies

Melnikova O.T., Kutkovaya E.S.(2014). Discursive approach to identity research.Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 59-71

The article compares key concepts of the traditional (cognitive) and discursive approaches to identity. The capabilities of the concept of social category and the process of social categorization, relation between social role and position, the concepts of social norms, context, and social practices are discussed. Two variants of discursive approach are discussed: D-discourse and d-discourse analysis. We discuss the relation between the most developed trends in discursive research of identity: critical discourse analysis, the positioning theory and discursive psychology, the performative analysis, membership categorization analysis and conversational analysis.Undertaken analysis reveals that from the perspective of discursive approach identity is formed and manifests itself in the communication, its main feature is flexibility; therefore it has varying and depending on the situation character. Identity is embedded into the broad cultural context and being reproduced on the basis of the existing social practices. The special role of language and text in the formation of identity is emphasized.

Received: 11/07/2013

Pages: 59-71

Keywords: identity; discursive approach; social practice; context; social group; discourse analysis; critical discourse analysis;

By: Melnikova O.T.; Kutkovaya, Ekaterina S.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014


Psychological aid

Borozdina L.V., Volkova N.N.(2014). The experience of correction of “Risk Triad”.Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 72-86

The “Risk Triad” phenomenon is divergence of subject’s self-evaluation height and goal choosing level, i.e. person’s level of aspirations, that is accompanied by statistically significant increase of index of anxiety (aggression and frustration), unlike convergence of level characteristics of individual’s evaluation of self and his goal choice. Dissociation of level parameters of self-evaluation and aspirations has two types: aspirations may either exceed self-evaluation or not achieve it. Verification of dissociative complex on the data of arterial hypertension (essential form) and peptic ulcer (of duodenum), i.e. on the data of illnesses, for which in medicine there is no question about their mainly psychogenic etiology, reveals not just the presence of “triad”, but its more extensive and intensive manifestation at named diseases. There is no doubt in fact that mismatch of self-evaluation and aspirations heights, connected with conspicuous increase of index of anxiety is a potentially pathological complex. It was initially called “risk triad psychosomatic diseases”. However evidence of last researches, indicating significantly more frequent contagion acute respiratory diseases of children at the age of 10—16 years with “Risk Triad” (4—5 times per year) in comparison with its absence (1—2 times per year), necessitates to expand the incidence of founded phenomenon. Elicited complex constitutes not so much ordinary variation of ratio of separate psychical formations, as their dangerous combination. Early manifestation of “Risk Triad” in ontogenesis (10—11 years) requires creation of ways of its correction. The article presents scheme of such correction for hyper-aspirations type, when level of subject’s goal choice is higher than his self-evaluation. Main tasks of created scheme, results of its application with explicit explanation of presented cases are analyzed.

Received: 11/30/2013

Pages: 72-86

Keywords: self-evaluation; level of aspirations; index of anxiety; “Risk Triad”; direction and type of frustration’s reaction;

By: Borozdina L.V.; Volkova, Nataliya N.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014


Discussions

Bazarov T.Yu., Erofeyev A.K., Shmelyov A.G.(2014). Collective definition of the notion “competence”: An attempt to acquire semantic regularities from fuzzy expert knowledge.Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 87-102

In this article the authors comment and discuss the results of the expert 16 definitions of the term “competence”. The participants were 45 psychologists of higher qualification (candidates and doctors of Sciences) — members of the Internet community of psychologists on the website www.ht.ru. They judged all definitions by means of 7 different rating scales. The resulting data cube 45×16×7 was analyzed by factor and cluster analysis. It was revealed 2 significant factor reflecting the level of popularity of definitions (the first factor), as well as the proximity-distance from the pole of terminological Russian national tradition (the second factor), mainly related to the concepts of “PVK” (PIQ in English “professionally important qualities”) and “ZUN” (KAZ in English — “Knowledge Ability-Skills”). Rating of the definitions by academic specialists was appeared to be close to the national tradition and evaluation of psychologists-practitioners closer to the Western tradition. Using cluster analysis discovered 4 robust clusters: 1) the competence as an area of authority and responsibility, 2) competence is the same as “PVK”, 3) the competence as mobilization the knowledge and skills to solve a specific task, 4) competences are descriptive units (elements) of effective professional activity. The most promising and creative approach, according to the authors, is the third cluster, in which an attempt is made to search a synthesis of the domestic (based on activity theory) and Western (behavioral approach) conceptual-terminological traditions.

Received: 10/16/2013

Pages: 87-102

Keywords: competence; competence; professionally important qualities; personnel assessment; personality traits; organizational context; organizational demands; expert judgments; factor analysis; cluster analyses;

By: Bazarov, Tahir Yu.; Erofeyev, Aleksandr K.; Shmelev A.G.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014


Methods

Krasnaya M. A.(2014). Development and approbation of technique devoted to diagnostic individual’s position in a social situation.Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 103-111

The article describes the attempt of technique development and approbation devoted to diagnostic of person’s position in a social situation. The notion of “position” is regarded as a method of forming a relationship with human society. Individual’s position in the world is produced by activities and is realized through human relationship with the social situation. Two person’s positions in the process of the forming relationships with the surrounding reality were highlighted: 1) analyst-observer position; 2) activist position. The technique contains the projective stimulus material — proverbs. The material provides an opportunity to consider the individual’s position through interpretation of various social situations represented in proverbs. The technique was tested within four phases. Basing on the received results it is possible to design further development of multi-level analytical framework for understanding person’s position in the modern society

Received: 08/03/2013

Pages: 103-111

Keywords: social situation; person’s position; analyst-observer; activist; proverbs as projective stimulus material;

By: Krasnaya, Mariya A.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014


Psychophysiology

Devishvili V.M., Turkovsky A.A., Palikhova T.A.(2014). Self-stimulation of snail Helix pomatia .Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 112-125

“Simpler nervous systems” are useful experimental base for studying mechanisms of synaptic plasticity at the behavior, cellular and the synaptic levels. Electro-stimulation of viscera of edible snail Helix pomatia was used to appreciate, first, parameters of the stimulation for change of functional state of a snail and, second, to evaluate meaning for a snail (negative or positive) of visceral stimulation in situation of free behavioral choice of self-stimulation. For both tasks twenty of intact snails with implanted paired silver electrodes were used in experiments with recording of movements of animals. At first series thresholds of activation of the snails by local electro-stimulation of viscera were appreciated for stimuli of 50-100 msec. in duration and were about 4—6 V. It was sufficient the single stimulus to activate snail in 48 experiments (from 100, n=100), for others cases it were need two (30 experiments) or three (22 experiments) stimuli. At second series active snails could choose between carrot and a stick that’s movement evoked electrical stimulation of viscera. Time of choice of stick has been compared for condition when snail might electro-stimulate it’s by stick’s and when it cannot, current in back-world system was off. The results were unexpected. Time of preference of stick by snail was three time more in condition of self-stimulation (about 15 min per hour in comparison with 5 min for N=8 and n=94). Obtained data show that visceral electro-stimulation is positive reinforcement for a snail in condition of self-stimulation when activity of the snail changes parameters of the stimulus

Received: 11/08/2013

Pages: 112-125

Keywords: behavioral choice; edible snail Helix pomatia; electro-stimulation of viscera; self-stimulation; operant conditioning; reinforcement;

By: Devishvili, Vazha M.; Turkovsky, Aleksandr A.; Palikhova, Tatyana A.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014


Anniversaries

The staff of the faculty of psychology MSU(2014).To the 60th anniversary of Alexandr Georgiyevich Shmelyov. Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology,1,126-128

To the 60th anniversary of Alexandr Georgiyevich Shmelyov.

Pages: 126-128

Keywords: Anniversaries; Alexandr Georgiyevich Shmelyov;

By: The staff of the faculty of psychology;

Available Online: 31.03.2014


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