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Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology, 2014, 1, 128 p.

Theoretical and empirical studies

Znakov V.V.(2014). Cognitive and affective unconscious in understanding of the stranger as enemy . Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 3-15

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:2109:"<p>In article on the example of growing number of the conflicts between
adherents of Christian and Muslim values, and also the ethno-religious nature
of terrorism the psychological reasons of understanding of foreign person not as
friend, and as enemy are analyzed. Proved that in understanding of the stranger
an important role plays not only conscious rational knowledge of the subject, but
also unconscious and everyday concepts. The emphasis is placed on research of the
cognitive and affective unconscious — extra conceptual irrational components of
understanding of the stranger. It is proved that there are such spheres of human life
which at all don’t accept rational knowledge. In similar spheres there is a radical
contradiction between rational knowledge, an explanation and deep emotions,
experiences. Deep attitudes and prejudices can’t be overcome logical arguments:
they don’t rely on reasonable judgments and therefore they can’t be destroyed
usual logic. The main issue on which attempt to answer is made, consists in the
following: why at recognition of the fact of burning of the Koran or an act of
girls from “Pussy Riot” group not only conscious rational explanations, but also
unconscious components of behavioral reactions of the people speaking different
languages and living in the different countries, are very similar? The explanation
of this phenomenon in article develops in three directions. First, data that the
subject makes many moral and religious decisions automatically, intuitively,
unconsciously are provided. Secondly, from J. Piaget’s research follows that some
operational schemes of actions can contradict ideas which the subject consciously already formulated. These ideas take higher place, than action schemes, and block their integration into conscious thinking. Thirdly, with reference to results of psychophysiological researches existence of filters locates in consciousness, making the appearance at correlation of the ancient and recently created cultural phenomena with less and more differentiated brain systems.</p>";s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"html";}

Pages: 3-15

Keywords: understanding; stranger; enemy; terrorism; the cognitive and affective unconscious;

By: Znakov V.V.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014

Tolochek V. A., Timashkova N. A., Denisova V. G.(2014). Professional making of subjects of the pedagogical activity: The positive and negative changes . Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 16-32

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:1802:"<p>
    Tasks of the study: 1) Analysis of dynamics of subjects’ professional making (SPM) as evolutions in the aspects of professional development, professional destructions and professional burning out. 2) Isolation of intra-subject resources and extra-subject, combined with the dynamics SPM. Hypotheses: 1) Professional destructions and professional burning out are more expressed in teachers, than in other representatives of socionomic professions (educators). 2) Scarcities in the updating of intra- and extra-subject resources come out as the determinants of destructions and burning out. 3) Destructive processes in subjects grow from 35—45 years. 4) The initial phases of destructions and burning out are reflected adequately. Sample: 1) the teacher of secondary schools — 51 women at the age from 28 to 65 years (M=46.2; SD=8.6), with the length of employment from 7 to 42 years (M=23.9; SD=9.1); 2) the educators of children’s pre-school establishments — 34 women at the age from 26 to 65 years (M=46.4; SD=10.4), with the length of employment from 2 to 43 years (M=24.1; SD=10.3). Method is quasi-measurement. Basic conclusions: The dynamics SPM of teachers can be characterized as non-optimal; the using of resources — limited, fragmentary, partial; the dynamics SPM of educators — optimum; the use of resources, their mismatch with PSS are combined the increase of destructive processes from 35—45 years and with strengthening on the boundary of 55 years; with molding of professional outsider, or type of specialists, who support professionalism with the price of psychophysiological overvoltage. Teachers are more subjected to professional destructions and professional burning out, than educators. The first stages of burning out and destructions are reflected adequately by them.
</p>";s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"html";}

Received: 09/22/2013

Pages: 16-32

Keywords: professional burnout; career; professional formation; subject; evolution; destruction;

By: Tolochek, Vladimir A.; Timashkova, Nadezhda A.; Denisova, Veronika G.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014

Pikulyova O.A.(2014). Social and psychological factors in choosing assertive tactics of self-presentation of the student youth.Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 33-46

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:1442:"The article presents the results of empirical research of the interaction
between personal values and self-presentational behavior. The main hypothesis of the study was that there are differences in the value priorities and preference of tactics and strategies of self-presentation of personality caused by social (ethnic and cultural affiliation, region of residence, gender identity) and psychological (self-monitoring) factors. The study involved 209 students (average age of 20 years). In Vyborg for processing were accepted respondents defined their identity as Russians and reported as a religion, Orthodoxy, in Nalchik, the questionnaire respondents defined their identity as Kabardins or Balkars and reported as a religion Islam. In the result of the study revealed that there is a direct connection between the machines on individualism and manifestation assertive self-presentational
behavior (level of significance p<0.001). Personality-focused values, which
support the desire of the individual to material success and the individual’s social
achievements, contribute to the orientation of the person on assertive strategy of
self-presentation “Self-enhancement”, and socio-focused value orientations aimed
at care about the welfare of others — hinder. Using assertive tactics and strategies of self-presentation is connected with a high level of self-monitoring, regardless of the ethnic and cultural differentiation.";s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"html";}

Received: 09/15/2013

Pages: 33-46

Keywords: self-presentation; tactics and strategies of self-presentation; self-monitoring; personal values;

By: Pikulyova, Oksana A.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014

Sazonova E.V.(2014). The psychological aspect of adolescent interest in Harry Potter.Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 47-58

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:1276:"The article is devoted to the investigation of adolescents’ interest to the books about Harry Potter. Theoretically it is proved that these texts are written in the genre of fantasy, which is characterized by an initiative action of the hero, his decision to act.A preliminary research (1052 respondents, interviews, focus-groups,
instrument “associations”, “unfinished clauses”) has revealed that adolescents’
interest focuses at the hero’s action and its characteristics — the place andmagic tools. The principal research was conducted by the instrument “semantic
differential” using scales derived from the preliminary research (214 respondents
at the age of 13—18).
The research has revealed the following: most attractive for adolescents are
those aspects of “Harry Potter” by J. Rowling that are connected with an initiative
of the hero, his/her goal achievement, proactive action. Such an action is possible
if the personage applies own efforts (agility, skill, desire to win, commitment);
possesses magic tools that help to be powerful, capable, secure and free and
unembarrassed; acts in special environment — unpredictable, dangerous, hard, meaningful. The real world is perceived by teenagers as grey, sad, devoid of purpose. It deprives action. ";s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"html";}

Received: 11/19/2013

Pages: 47-58

Keywords: modern adolescents; adolescents’ interest; semantic differential;

By: Sazonova, Elena V.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014


Review, analytical studies

Melnikova O.T., Kutkovaya E.S.(2014). Discursive approach to identity research.Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 59-71

The article compares key concepts of the traditional (cognitive) and discursive approaches to identity. The capabilities of the concept of social category and the process of social categorization, relation between social role and position, the concepts of social norms, context, and social practices are discussed. Two variants of discursive approach are discussed: D-discourse and d-discourse analysis. We discuss the relation between the most developed trends in discursive research of identity: critical discourse analysis, the positioning theory and discursive psychology, the performative analysis, membership categorization analysis and conversational analysis.Undertaken analysis reveals that from the perspective of discursive approach identity is formed and manifests itself in the communication, its main feature is flexibility; therefore it has varying and depending on the situation character. Identity is embedded into the broad cultural context and being reproduced on the basis of the existing social practices. The special role of language and text in the formation of identity is emphasized.

Received: 11/07/2013

Pages: 59-71

Keywords: identity; discursive approach; social practice; context; social group; discourse analysis; critical discourse analysis;

By: Melnikova O.T.; Kutkovaya, Ekaterina S.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014


Psychological aid

Borozdina L.V., Volkova N.N.(2014). The experience of correction of “Risk Triad”.Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 72-86

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:1921:"The “Risk Triad” phenomenon is divergence of subject’s self-evaluation height
and goal choosing level, i.e. person’s level of aspirations, that is accompanied by
statistically significant increase of index of anxiety (aggression and frustration),
unlike convergence of level characteristics of individual’s evaluation of self and
his goal choice. Dissociation of level parameters of self-evaluation and aspirations has two types: aspirations may either exceed self-evaluation or not achieve it. Verification of dissociative complex on the data of arterial hypertension (essential
form) and peptic ulcer (of duodenum), i.e. on the data of illnesses, for which in
medicine there is no question about their mainly psychogenic etiology, reveals
not just the presence of “triad”, but its more extensive and intensive manifestation
at named diseases. There is no doubt in fact that mismatch of self-evaluation and
aspirations heights, connected with conspicuous increase of index of anxiety is a potentially pathological complex. It was initially called “risk triad psychosomatic
diseases”. However evidence of last researches, indicating significantly more
frequent contagion acute respiratory diseases of children at the age of 10—16 years with “Risk Triad” (4—5 times per year) in comparison with its absence (1—2 times per year), necessitates to expand the incidence of founded phenomenon. Elicited
complex constitutes not so much ordinary variation of ratio of separate psychical
formations, as their dangerous combination. Early manifestation of “Risk Triad” in ontogenesis (10—11 years) requires creation of ways of its correction. The article presents scheme of such correction for hyper-aspirations type, when level of subject’s goal choice is higher than his self-evaluation. Main tasks of created scheme, results of its application with explicit explanation of presented cases are analyzed.";s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"html";}

Received: 11/30/2013

Pages: 72-86

Keywords: self-evaluation; level of aspirations; index of anxiety; “Risk Triad”; direction and type of frustration’s reaction;

By: Borozdina L.V.; Volkova, Nataliya N.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014


Discussions

Bazarov T.Yu., Erofeyev A.K., Shmelyov A.G.(2014). Collective definition of the notion “competence”: An attempt to acquire semantic regularities from fuzzy expert knowledge.Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 87-102

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:1606:"In this article the authors comment and discuss the results of the expert
16 definitions of the term “competence”. The participants were 45 psychologists
of higher qualification (candidates and doctors of Sciences) — members of the
Internet community of psychologists on the website www.ht.ru. They judged all
definitions by means of 7 different rating scales. The resulting data cube 45×16×7
was analyzed by factor and cluster analysis. It was revealed 2 significant factor
reflecting the level of popularity of definitions (the first factor), as well as the
proximity-distance from the pole of terminological Russian national tradition
(the second factor), mainly related to the concepts of “PVK” (PIQ in English “professionally important qualities”) and “ZUN” (KAZ in English — “Knowledge Ability-Skills”). Rating of the definitions by academic specialists was appeared to
be close to the national tradition and evaluation of psychologists-practitioners closer to the Western tradition. Using cluster analysis discovered 4 robust clusters:
1) the competence as an area of authority and responsibility, 2) competence is the
same as “PVK”, 3) the competence as mobilization the knowledge and skills to
solve a specific task, 4) competences are descriptive units (elements) of effective
professional activity. The most promising and creative approach, according to the
authors, is the third cluster, in which an attempt is made to search a synthesis
of the domestic (based on activity theory) and Western (behavioral approach)
conceptual-terminological traditions.";s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"html";}

Received: 10/16/2013

Pages: 87-102

Keywords: competence; competence; professionally important qualities; personnel assessment; personality traits; organizational context; organizational demands; expert judgments; factor analysis; cluster analyses;

By: Bazarov, Tahir Yu.; Erofeyev, Aleksandr K.; Shmelev A.G.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014


Methods

Krasnaya M. A.(2014). Development and approbation of technique devoted to diagnostic individual’s position in a social situation.Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 103-111

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:987:"The article describes the attempt of technique development and approbation
devoted to diagnostic of person’s position in a social situation. The notion of
“position” is regarded as a method of forming a relationship with human society.
Individual’s position in the world is produced by activities and is realized through
human relationship with the social situation. Two person’s positions in the process of the forming relationships with the surrounding reality were highlighted:
1) analyst-observer position; 2) activist position. The technique contains the
projective stimulus material — proverbs. The material provides an opportunity to
consider the individual’s position through interpretation of various social situations
represented in proverbs. The technique was tested within four phases. Basing on the
received results it is possible to design further development of multi-level analytical
framework for understanding person’s position in the modern society";s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"html";}

Received: 08/03/2013

Pages: 103-111

Keywords: social situation; person’s position; analyst-observer; activist; proverbs as projective stimulus material;

By: Krasnaya, Mariya A.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014


Psychophysiology

Devishvili V.M., Turkovsky A.A., Palikhova T.A.(2014). Self-stimulation of snail Helix pomatia .Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology, 1, 112-125

a:2:{s:4:"TEXT";s:1669:"“Simpler nervous systems” are useful experimental base for studying
mechanisms of synaptic plasticity at the behavior, cellular and the synaptic levels.
Electro-stimulation of viscera of edible snail Helix pomatia was used to appreciate,
first, parameters of the stimulation for change of functional state of a snail and,
second, to evaluate meaning for a snail (negative or positive) of visceral stimulation
in situation of free behavioral choice of self-stimulation. For both tasks twenty of
intact snails with implanted paired silver electrodes were used in experiments with
recording of movements of animals. At first series thresholds of activation of the
snails by local electro-stimulation of viscera were appreciated for stimuli of 50-100
msec. in duration and were about 4—6 V. It was sufficient the single stimulus to
activate snail in 48 experiments (from 100, n=100), for others cases it were need
two (30 experiments) or three (22 experiments) stimuli. At second series active
snails could choose between carrot and a stick that’s movement evoked electrical
stimulation of viscera. Time of choice of stick has been compared for condition
when snail might electro-stimulate it’s by stick’s and when it cannot, current in
back-world system was off. The results were unexpected. Time of preference of
stick by snail was three time more in condition of self-stimulation (about 15 min
per hour in comparison with 5 min for N=8 and n=94). Obtained data show that
visceral electro-stimulation is positive reinforcement for a snail in condition of
self-stimulation when activity of the snail changes parameters of the stimulus";s:4:"TYPE";s:4:"html";}

Received: 11/08/2013

Pages: 112-125

Keywords: behavioral choice; edible snail Helix pomatia; electro-stimulation of viscera; self-stimulation; operant conditioning; reinforcement;

By: Devishvili, Vazha M.; Turkovsky, Aleksandr A.; Palikhova, Tatyana A.;

Available Online: 31.03.2014


Anniversaries

The staff of the faculty of psychology MSU(2014).To the 60th anniversary of Alexandr Georgiyevich Shmelyov. Moscow University Psychology Bulletin. Series 14.Psychology,1,126-128

To the 60th anniversary of Alexandr Georgiyevich Shmelyov.

Pages: 126-128

Keywords: Anniversaries; Alexandr Georgiyevich Shmelyov;

By: The staff of the faculty of psychology;

Available Online: 31.03.2014


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