Aslanova Margarita S.
Relevance: the problem of diagnosing perfectionism in sports activities is relevant for solving a large number of research issues related to the study of emotional states and factors of success in athletes, as well as practical tasks related to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of athletes. In this regard, the design of a method for diagnosing perfectionism in sports activities seems necessary and relevant.
Objective: to test the method “Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale”, and to check the reliability and structural validity of this method.
Methods: testing was carried out on a sample (N=323) of Russian athletes of different kinds of sports. In the process of adapting the questionnaire, a direct and reverse translation of the questionnaire was performed, the factor structure of the questionnaire was checked using exploratory factor analysis, the internal consistency of the questionnaire scales and convergent validity using correlation analysis.
Results: a five-factor model of the method was identified. It included the following scales: “Organization and high personal standards“, “High parental expectations”, “Doubts about actions“, “ Concern over mistakes” and “High coaching expectations". Analysis of the reliability of the scales showed significant internal consistency of each of them. To assess convergent validity, a correlation analysis of the scales of the tested method and the “Three-factor perfectionism questionnaire” by N. G. Garanyan and A. B. Kholmogorova were performed. The results of the analysis showed that the method “Multidimensional perfectionism scale in sports” has the high convergent validity, which indicates a fairly predictive value of this tool.
Conclusions: for the first time in the field of Russian sports psychology, a tool for measuring perfectionism in athletes has been tested, which has shown high structural validity and reliability. In this regard, the method “Multidimensional perfectionism scale in sports” can be used for practical purposes to solve diagnostic and psychotherapeutic problems in the field of professional sports.
Keywords: perfectionism; sport psychology; perfectionism; perfectionism in athletes; personality of athletesDOI Number: 10.11621/vsp.2021.01.10
Relevance. There is growing interest in the market for educational applications in Russia. A significant number of these are aimed at preschoolers. Although much is known about the key features of preschoolers learning ( due to the cultural-historical approach as well ), there is still little research analyzing whether these features are taken into account in the design and methodology of mobile applications available on the market.
Objective. To analyze math apps for preschoolers from the standpoint of cultural-historical theory.
Design. We went to Google Play and AppStore with the query “mathematics for preschoolers” and selected four apps that are most popular among users and recommended by experts. We analyzed them according to the following criteria: (1) adult engagement, (2) quality of the child’s interactions with the application content, (3) types of content, (4) forms of material presentation and the correspondence of the method of number concept formation to the preschool age specifics, (5) the quality of mathematical content, that ensures the principle of continuity with the primary school curriculum.
Results. None of the apps was based on developmental learning methodology, and none used opportunities for involving an adult in a dialogue and joint activities with a child. Not all the apps considered the characteristics of the age group in their design of content and the child's interactions with the app. Only one of the apps provides continuity with the primary school curriculum.
Conclusions. Scientific knowledge and practical achievements in the field of mathematical education for preschoolers are not always reflected even in the most popular programs. Our analysis allows to draw the attention of parents, teachers, and developers to important design elements that could make an app really educational for preschool children.Keywords: math apps; preschool education; elementary mathematical concepts; interaction with the appDOI Number: 10.11621/vsp.2020.03.08
Relevance. Knowledge of the spontaneous development of learning skills (LS) of University students is important and relevant, because the lack of LS adversely affects the success of independent learning, reducing the level of social and professional mobility of students and their competitiveness in the labor market.
Objective. Determining the dynamics and extent of spontaneous development of basic and additional LS students with an engineering profile in usual side developmental nature of learning at the University, as well as of their relationship with academic performance.
Methods. For the diagnosis of basic LS specially designed tasks to build knowledge on the material of technical disciplines were used. Additional LS were tested using the author's questionnaire with scaling.
Sample. 135 students of the 1st, 4th and 6th courses of technical universities of Moscow: 89 boys and 46 girls aged 18 to 33 years.
Results. During the full 6-year course of study, students of engineering profile showed an increase in the level of basic LS: non-independent knowledge building (+31.25%), independent knowledge building (+12%), mixed knowledge building (+81.96%). The growth of additional skills as conscious work with the cognitive sphere (+2.8%) and with emotional states (+13.33%) was established, but the ability to work with motives and volitional regulation decreased (-8.18%), as well as to work with knowledge as learning objectives (-16.12%), and to plan the order and time of activities (-10.21%).
Conclusion. It is necessary to take into account the reduced opportunities of students in decoding and generalization in the process of obtaining knowledge from messages with their ambiguity and a large amount of specific content. These types of basic LS need to be purposefully developed. The negative dynamics in the development of a number of additional LS also indicates the need for their special development at the University.Keywords: general study skills; teaching the ability to learn; spontaneously developing subject training; consciously organized developing subject trainingDOI Number: 10.11621/vsp.2019.03.86