The method “Fairy Semantic Differential”, during which a respondent should assess a number of fairy-tale characters according to a set of personal characteristics, is designed for the individual work of a psychologist with children 4—9 years old. Personality characteristics, according to which the characters are evaluated, are formulated in terms that parents, teachers use when dealing with children of this age. An analysis of the child's attitude to this or that fairy-tale character allows us to determine the specificity of his (her) moral-value sphere. The method also allows evaluating of real adults, who are significant for the child (parents, teachers, etc.) Comparison of fairy-tale characters' ratings with those of a significant adult makes it possible to reveal the specifics of the child's attitude to this adult. The article discusses quantitative indicators that can be calculated using the data of the answering the questionnaire. These indicators characterize the child’s personality, his (her) understanding of interpersonal relationships with surrounding people, dimension of categorical space of interpersonal perception, content of this categories and its hierarchy, the level of cognitive development in this area, the degree of socialization. The method allows measuring self-esteem indices. The results of an empirical study of Moscow primary schoolchildren using the method “Fairy Semantic Differential” are presented, during which a psychometric analysis of the indicators was conducted. It was shown that the cognitive complexity of interpersonal perception, determined by the method “Fairy Semantic Differential” is significantly higher among adults, does not correlate with intelligence tests. Socialization increases with age, is significantly higher among girls than among boys, partly correlates with known methods that measure the level of social adaptation of a child, the degree of differentiation of moral and conventional norms, verbal intellect. The analysis of self-esteem indices reveals significantly higher self-criticism among girls, than among boys.
Available Online: 09/10/2017
Psychosemantic approach is most in demand when it comes to research collective representations, allowing to identify the underlying attitudes and stereotypes that are poorly reflected upon, or hidden because of social undesirability, and therefore difficult to diagnose. Political leaders’ perception is just such an example. The article deals with a number of images of contemporary political leaders and historical figures who have played at one time a significant role in world politics in the student audience perceptions of South Korea. Psychosemantic author’s technique “The image of a political leader” was used to obtain empirical data. 107 subjects (females and males) took part in the survey. The study included the construction of multi-dimensional semantic spaces, projecting the operational model of categorical perception structures of political leaders. For data analysis methods of multivariate statistics were used (principal component analysis and discriminant analysis).
Available Online: 09/20/2016
Along with conventional notions about the positive influence pets on the development and psychological well-being of children, an increasing number of investigations evaluate the role of pets in the life of the modern urban family more carefully. Existing contradictions can be resolved via submission on pets as integral and important parts of the entire family system: the emergence of pets in the family may be associated with the maintenance and regulation of its homeostasis. We tested this assumption in the empirical research, which objectives were: 1) identification of the association between the age of the child/ siblings and appearance pets in families; 2) correlation of the data with the stages of family life cycle. Based on the data obtained from the survey (n=658) among students, conducted among first-year students of the faculty of psychology of Moscow State University and among the clients of the veterinary surgeon in 2008—2012 (n=75), we have analyzed the dependence of the frequency of occurrence of pets, which respondents considered “family member”, on the age of child/children in the family at the time of their purchase. According our findings pets’ appearance in a family with the only child happen when the child is 7, 9, 13, 16 years old, in a family with two children it happens when the second child is 7, 9, 13 years old and (or) the first one is 12—16 years old). These peaks happen when families have normal crises, not related with the changing family structure, but with the other factors, particularly with necessity contacting with social surrounding or with strict changing demands of psychical development of the child. The peaks of appearance pets in a family which were found by us can be evidence of including pets in regulation homeostasis of family life.
Available Online: 06/30/2015
The PC-based Questionary for S. Schwatz Method of Value Preferences was developed. Access to the system is carried out through Internet. The pilot monitoring was conducted using the sample of 711 seniors of the state public schools in Moscow in the age 16-18 years old. The psychometric validity and reliability of the Schwatz Method of the Value Preferences has been proved trustworthy. We have got the set of similarities and differences of the results got on the similar samples comparing our PC-based modification and traditional pencil-paper method. The PC system with distant internet access in its present development can be used for the scientific and applied research as well as for current monitoring of the public educational institutions.
Available Online: 03/31/2015
The effect of chess skill, age and memorizing’s conditions on the efficiency of recall of sequences of opening chess moves was studied. 39 chess players of different skill (from 2 category to the grandmaster) and age (from 17 to 81 years old), divided into 4 groups (ELO>2000 before and after the age of 40; ELO<2000 before and after the age of 40), memorized the sequences of moves in three conditions (passive perception, physical making of moves, imagination) and recalled them, making the moves. It turned out that: a) in the passive perception condition more young chess players, on the one hand, and more highly skilled, on the other, significantly better recalled the moves; b) almost in all groups of players the success of the memory grows to the extent that, as converging conditions of memorizing and reproduction, with the highest growth rate found among chess players with ELO>2000 after 40 years; c) the current memorizing of chess experts (in comparison with intermediate players) to a greater extent mediated by opening schemes and knowledge. Confirmed and concretized the hypothesis about the activity-based encoding specificity in the episodic memory. But chess skill and age determine the effect of remembering by mediator – conditions of imprinting, so the principles of the encoding specificity and activity-based specificity act in unity.
Available Online: 06/30/2013
Assessment of the psychometrical features of the Russian version of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) was conducted on the sample of students (n=196; different specializations, from different cities across Russia). The following methods were used: Cronbach’s alfa coefficient, test-retest, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, correlation analysis. As a result Scales of the Inventory show good validity, internal consistency reliability and reproducibility. Factor structure of the Russian version of ZTPI is almost identical reproduction of the original Inventory factor structure. Convergent and discriminant validity was shown.
Available Online: 12/31/2008
Principles of data analysis, which were got during developing inventory of multifactor research of tolerance, are observed. This inventory has two-mode structure. The necessity of studying of tolerance as complex system including possible objects of tolerant attitude along with different possible levels of regulations these attitudes was advocated. The structural equation modeling namely multi-trait multi-method model (MTMM) was used. Equations for specification the models are included. The possibility and advantages of using MTMM for analysis data having 3-mode structure in studies of different types is discussed.