Relevance. The relevance of identifying methodological problems in the study of bilingualism and its impact on individual and social processes is due to the economic, political and socio-psychological characteristics of modern multicultural and multilingual societies. The special significance of the study of bilingualism acquire in the Russian language context. It is characterized by the need to find a balance between raising the status of the Russian language (as the main unifying factor of civil identity) and the development and preservation of the languages of the peoples of Russia (as an important component of the ethnocultural identity of their representatives).
Objective. The work is aimed at the analysis of the main methodological problems that arise during the research of bilingualism, identifying its impact on cognitive processes and the relationship of bilingualism with ethnocultural identity.
Method. From the point of view of the system approach and cultural-historical psychology, a critical analysis of studies of bilingualism, its impact on cognitive processes and the relationship with ethno-cultural identity was carried out.
Results and conclusions. Methodological problems that complicate the study of bilingualism, systematization and generalization of their results, and the application of the results in various spheres of social practice are identified. A number of methodological challenges need to be overcome in the field of studying the impact of bilingualism and multilingualism in order to obtain valid and reliable research results and implement practical, socially significant tasks in the field of preserving the languages of the peoples of Russia along with strengthening the status of the Russian language. The need for interdisciplinary studies of bilingualism and its impact on cognitive processes and ethnocultural identity based on the application of a systematic approach, including in the Russian multilingual context, is shown.
Available Online: 03/15/2019
Relevance. Today there are no real models of the human brain's heuristic activity. In this regard, now it is absent real models of heuristic activity of the human brain, according to the accumulated experimental material, the possibilities of modeling two basic principles of the operation of real neural networks of the human brain was presented.
Goal. The proving of real neuroemulator possibility for system synthesis as a model of heuristic behavior of human brain.
Methods. We propose the numerical repetition of electroencephalogram registration (EEG) and construct the special matrix of their (EEG) comparison. For neuroemulator we propose the numerical repetition and choice value of weight of coefficient wi0for any diagnostic parameters xi(like for real EEG).
Conclusions. It is shown that such two procedures (reverberation and chaos) are identical to the heuristic activity of the brain. The brain selects the main xi* from the set of xi variables and at the same time we move from the phase space m to the new phase space with little dimension n (n<<m). The choice of the main xi*is a problem of system synthesis (finding of the order parameters). It is realized at the expense of reverberation and chaos to neural networks. We must mark: the artificial neuron nets emphasize demonstrate such behavior at every time.
Available Online: 09/07/2018
Relevance.The growth of mental health disorders, psychological problems in modern society among different categories of the population, including representatives of different cultures and faiths and the lack of cultural development of specific approaches to understanding mental health and psychological well-being raise the problem of cultural conditionality of representations of mental health and psychological well-being in a number of important interdisciplinary problems, of high scientific and practical importance in such multinational and multicultural countries as Russia.
Objective.To examine the relationship between cultural context and mental health and psychological well-being.
Methods.Review and analysis of current research in the field of cultural conditioning of various aspects of mental health and psychological well-being.Conclusions.The analysis of the different approaches to the study of representations of mental health and psychological well-being has allowed to establish that the existing differences in ways of coping with stress, the level of stigma in seeking psychological help have cultural conditioning and do not only depend on socio-economic living conditions, but also on subjective perceptions of these phenomena, as well as ethnic and cultural identity of people in a particular society. The urgency and necessity of development of new and cultural-specific adaptation of existing diagnostic tools for comparative study of ideas about mental health and psychological well-being within one territorially united society, which is characterized by high ethnic and cultural diversity, are shown.
Available Online: 06/20/2018
In this paper was studied the attention properties of students aged 12—17 who are living in different climatic regions: the city of Surgut in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District and in rural areas of the middle Russia (Samara Region). The students of the first group live in the extreme climatic conditions of the North, aggravated by the adverse social and environmental factors of urbanization. The students of the second group live in a climatically and environmentally friendly area, with minimal impact of man-made pollution. The method used to estimate the attention of Bourdon, in the modification proposed by the Soviet psychologist P.A. Rudik. A comparative statistical analysis of the results obtained the attention properties of different groups of students are carried out. The dynamics of changes in the K, E, A indices during the test was estimated, the coefficients for the whole test and for each minute of the experiment were calculated too. Specific features of the development of student’s attention: identified according age, gender differences, differences in the development of indicators of attention of students in two different schools. Significant differences (P<0.001) in the distribution and productivity of attention were revealed, the coefficient of productivity of attention of students in Surgut was 1.15 times lower than that of their peers in the Samara region. According to new theory of chaos-selforganization it was calculated the quasiattractors volume V for three coordinates Zi (coefficient of attention concentration, attention quality, attention production). It was demonstrated the maximum volume V of quasiattractor for 14—15 year old pupils of Surgut. Very small volume V demonstrates pupils of 16—17 year of Samara district. Reducing the size of quasi-tractors demonstrates a decrease in variation range and represents a greater consolidation of the group in terms of studied parameters (large volumes of quasi-tractors in Surgut population can indicate a large variation in parameters of attention and performance).
Available Online: 12/30/2017
This year marks the 70th anniversary of the publication of the monograph by N.A. Bernshtein "On the construction of movements" and 60 years since the publication of his eighth essay "The urgent problems of the regulation of motor acts". In these works, for the first time, the problem of uncertainty in the organization (and dynamics of behavior) of all systems, which we now designate as homeostatic or systems of the third type, according to W. Weaver's classification, was first raised. This problem was voiced by N.A. Bernstein as the hypothesis of "repetition without repetition", within which it is possible (as suggested by Bernstein) to describe any motor acts. After a detailed study of the various types of motion in biomechanics, we ascertained that modern deterministic-stochastic science has approached its developmental boundary in the study of living systems, since the main thesis about the repeatability and predictability of the state of the biosystem (neuronets of the brain, the human psyche) is violated. We turn to the study of systems that are in a continuous chaotic regime of changes of any parameters xi of such (unstable) systems. The Eskov-Zinchenko effect, which is a quantitative proof of Bernshtein’s hypothesis of "repetition without repetition", is that the successively obtained samples xi (in one, unchanged state) demonstrate a kaleidoscope of statistical distribution functions f(x), i.e. fj(xi)≠fj+1(xi) for two neighboring registered (from one person) registered samples xi (i.e., for the jth and j+1th). This erases the boundaries between arbitrary and involuntary movements from the standpoint of their objective, statistical evaluation. Statistical instability of any received samples of parameters xi, which describe homeostatic systems, requires new concepts and new models - models of homeostasis.
Available Online: 10/30/2017
According to modern concepts, the idea of a paradigm is associated with a certain common approach within the natural sciences in description of a large class of processes, objects, systems. If we’re talking about a global paradigm, this means such (global) paradigm should cover the huge classes of objects in nature and society. Today we highlight three global paradigms throughout modern science, which cover three global clusters of all processes and objects of living nature and inanimate nature. W. Weaver was first who proposed such statements in 1948 in his famous publication “Science and complexity”. However, during nearly 70 years almost no one paid any attention to these statements (though he spoke very simply about the most important things). W. Weaver has divided all objects and systems in nature into three giant clusters: the simplest systems (simplicity), which are described now in the framework of deterministic theories and models, unorganized complexity (stochastic system) and system of third type — organized complexity (organized complexity). Under the system of the third type he understood all living systems, but no special features in their organization has been identified and learned by W. Weaver. It is now clear that he could not do the study within the framework of modern science because this requires a different (third) paradigm and different science.
Available Online: 04/30/2017
Limited applicability of stochastics and comparing it with the new methods of multidimensional phase space were showed. Quantitative measures of the parameters are quasi-attractors for evaluation of chaotic dynamics on the example of the little finger abductor muscle. Method of multidimensional phase space carried out the study and modeling of complex biological objects (complexity). The state of the neuromuscular system is studied in two modes: a weak muscle tension and strong, almost the maximum force. Used quasi-attractors volumes of multidimensional phase spaces, which provide the identification of real changes in the parameters of the functional state with weak muscles (F1=5 daN) and strong (F2=10 daN) static stress. Analysis of the timebase signal x1(t) obtained with myograph, and autocorrelation functions A(t) signal showed their unrepeatability. Comparative analysis of the biomechanical system is made on the basis of registration of quasi-attractor’s volume, as well as on the basis of analysis of the Shannon’s entropy E. Volume of quasi-attractor’s movements x1(t) и x2(t)=dx1/dt at low load is slightly less than similar amounts of displacement of vector (х1, х2)Т under a heavy load of musculus abductor digiti mini. The values ??of the Shannon entropy under a heavy load are statistically unchanged. Values of the Shannon entropy under heavy load, not statistically vary on the advisability of entropy approach in the assessment of muscular efforts and the impossibility of application of the theorem of Glansdorff—Prigogine (thermodynamics of nonequilibrium systems) in psychophysiological research. Overall, restricting the use of methods of stochastics and the possibility of using the method of multidimensional phase spaces, have been demonstrated in the Eskov—Zinchenko effect.
Available Online: 09/20/2016
The discussion of crucial problems of psychophysiology and natural sciences is presented, in general: are there any recurrences of measured values of psychophysiological parameters (functions) of a person. It is shown that it is impossible to obtain arbitrarily a repetition of samples for tremor and electromyogram (when trying to maintain static muscular tension), statistical distribution function of samples f(x) is continuously changing. This dynamics is typical for tremor (conditionally involuntary movement) and electromyogram when the higher nervous activity of individual oversees the muscular effort. The involuntary movement (tremor) shows the number of coincidence of electromyogram samples (at unrestricted muscular tension) k, which is similar to such in the matrices of pairwise comparisons of tremor samples. Shannon’s entropy in this case does not change significantly.
Available Online: 04/15/2016
The article provides the analysis of 766 dissertations on specialization 19.00.04 “Medical psychology” submitted to dissertational councils in the Russian Federation and 23 807 foreign doctoral theses in the field of clinical psychology presented in ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database in 1990–2011. Compared to the international flow, the Russian array of theses includes less research (p<0.001) in history and methodology of medical psychology, psychological interventions, psychological aspects of medical treatment, psychological hygiene and prevention, social rehabilitation and improvement of patients’ quality of life and more research (p<0.001) in pathopsychology, neuropsychology, psychosomatics and somatic psychology, psychology of developmental impairments and deviant behavior. Quantitative and dynamic characteristics of dissertation flow on specialization 19.00.04 “Medical psychology” revealed strong links with macroeconomic development, indicator of scientific potential and innovative researchers’ activity in the field of medical (clinical) psychology in Russia.
Available Online: 06/30/2014
The paper aims to consider a syndrome-based approach in methodology adopted for psychological phenomena in application to corporeity psychology. We present a study case of 290 patients with mitral valve prolapse. We endeavor constructioning of a psychosomatic syndrome, employing techniques for a qualitative and statistical data analysis of longitudinal clinical-psychological study. We bring evidence that the syndrome is of multi-level character, and that its structure is determined by several factors: a motivational factor (with domination of the infavoidance motive and unsatisfied self-approval need), a factor of emotional regulation disorders, and a psychophysiological factor. We argue that it is feasible to use a psychosomatic syndrome as a key method in approaching not only diagnostic but also prognostic problems both in clinical psychology and in medicine.
Available Online: 06/30/2012
From chief editor
Available Online: 09/30/2008
8th International congress of clinical psychologists.
Available Online: 09/30/2008
Зинченко Ю.П. Олег Константинович Тихомиров — профессор факультета психологии Московского университета.
Available Online: 06/30/2008
Motives of the terrorist activity are revealed through the analysis of psychological mechanisms of realization of basic human needs at the stages of involvement in a terrorist organization and participation in them. Psychological appeal of terrorism in the context of the problem of the influence of modern technology on the dynamics of the boundaries of the norm and pathology is discussed.
Some key aspects of the terrorism as an object of psychological research are described: 1) ideological principles as an object of political psychology; 2) emotions such as aggression and hatred as an object of development psychology and psychology of personality; 3) terrorists’ organizations as an object of social psychology; 4) psychological motives inciting people to participate in terrorism activity as an object of clinical psychology; 5) usage of global informational space by terrorists as an object of psychology of mass communication. Instead of conclusion all participants of the round table are invited to discuss the following issues: a) terrorism as social-psychological phenomenon; b) psychological essence of the terrorism, psychological features of terrorists; c) motivation of terrorists; d) reduction of inter-ethnical tension as a factor of decreasing of terrorists’ activity; e) psychological mechanisms of mass-media influence on peoples’ behavior in a risk conditions of terrorists attacks; f) mass-media publications as a way to prevent the terrorism; g) psychological mechanisms of involvement into terrorist organizations; h) psychological rehabilitation of people survived different kinds of violence, including terrorist acts; i) psychological accompanying of antiterrorism measures; j) psychological training of specialists in counteraction to terrorism and elimination of consequences of terrorists’ acts.
Security psychology considers via social systemic search for contiguity and mutual complement of existing advances of psychology and conceptual security understanding. The ability of systemic vision of security and its cognitive and practical character are demonstrated. The possibility to investigate safety psychology as social theoretical construct is suggested. Multi-aspect approach to security is substantiated. Methodological challenges of psychological security are discussed.
The address is devoted to the following issues: a) congratulation of Faculty of Psychology at Saint-Petersburg State University with the opening Conference timed to 100th year Anniversary of birthday of famous Russian psychologist, one among the founders of the Faculty Boris Gerasimovich Ananiev from Russian Psychological Society and Faculty of Psychology at Lomonosov Moscow State University; b) collaboration of Faculties of Psychology at Lomonosov Moscow State University and Saint-Petersburg State University; c) some basic psychological problems that are general for Moscow’s and Saint-Petersburg’s scientific traditions; d) perspectives of further collaboration.
The article presents the analysis of work of dissertation councils at the MSU Department of Psychology. Quantitative indexes of defend thesises in psychology and pedagogic are adduced for 2001–2007 years. It was made an attempt to assume the quality of defended thesises in psychological and pedagogical science, as the priority was set the task to increase heir level, in particular, due to high requirements to publications in scientific edition «Moscow University Bulletin (Vestnik). Seria 14. Psychology».
Professional psychologies — for the future of Russia.
The article describes the results of the several years introduction of computerized testing in the outcome examinations for the final year students of psychological faculty of the Lomonosov Moscow State University. The procedure of testing, the features and the structure of the test item bank, technological and organizational issues are discussed including the procedural rules for students and professors. The main focus of the article is statistical analyses of the obtained correlations between test scores, traditional oral exam scores and academic history scores for all years in the university. As a result of the systematic improvements of test item bank the correlation between test scores and academic history scores increased each year and is equal last year 0.72 (the Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient) and 0.86 (Gulford’s coefficient for extreme groups). At the same time the analogical correlation for oral exams remained at the same level (0.55—0.59 the Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient).