Relevance. There are set of terms and theories, that describe human`s experience of interaction with the outside world. This leads to difficulties in comparing and analyzing the results of empirical studies of human representations of the world. This phenomenon is clearly manifested in the study of human concepts of the personal computer, actively developed by psychologists and specialists in human-computer interfaces design.
Objective. In this work we pretend to explain the requirements for empirical study of personal computers mental models (MM) structure in the framework of cultural-activity paradigm, based on the analysis of the history of MM research in various areas of cognitive psychology and cultural activity approach.
Results. We discussed the main approaches to the study of mental models in psychology, characteristics of MM and specificity of methods of their study. The concept of MM is compared with similar constructs developed in various areas of psychology: "cognitive map", "scheme", "mental representation", "meaning", "image of the world". We also analyzed the possibility of operationalization of this construct. The MM concept are compared with the A.N. Leontiev`s concept of the «image of the world» and features of the MM researches in cultural activity paradigm was showed. The concept of MM is discussed in the context of different approaches to the study of meanings in linguistics and psychology: the approach of fixed meanings and research of embodied cognition. Finally, we describe the main characteristics of MM, which should be taken into account to plan an empirical study of human representations of personal computers.
Conclusion. In the construction of empirical research of personal computer`s MM we should require special attention to such characteristics of MM, as their consistency, cultural dependency and integrity; methods of such study should take into account the own activity of the subject.
Available Online: 08/29/2019
The relevance of the study is the need to clarify what factors can determine the self-esteems of volitional traits of a person.
Objective. The empirical study of the possible influence of action control mode and action and meaningfulness of life level on person's representation about the development of his volitional traits.
Methods. 943 first-fifth year university students were asked to complete three questionnaires: Self-esteem technique of the volitional traits (V. Ivannikov, E. Aidman), Action control in planning scale (NAKEMP-90) in adaptation of S. Schapkin, Purpose in Life test in adaptation of D. Leontiev.
Results. There was a reliable relationship of the values of action control in planning scale (ACP) and general meaningfulness of life index (MLI) with three volitional traits (strong-willed, confident, bold) and total score of 20 volitional traits (TSVT). The results of 2-way ANOVA showed significant effects of Action Control and Meaningfulness of Life on the value of TSVT. The lowest TSVT values were observed in students with low values of ACP and MLI, and the highest -with high values of these indexes.
Conclusion. The results are discussed in the framework of V.A. Ivannikov’s theoretical ideas about psychological mechanisms of volitional regulation of personality, especially the role of the meaning formation in the process of transferring prompting from motive to purpose. It explains the natural connection of person`s meanings and self-esteems of volitional traits, as well as the contribution of such resource of self-regulation of human activity as action control mode.
Available Online: 05/30/2019
The article concerns the problem of developing online technologies for adolescents’ career guidance and professional consultation with regard to their huge interest in computer programs (games and other entertainments) on the one hand, and the apparent lack of science-based computer methods of professional self-determination, on the other hand. We analyze the positive and questionable aspects of the design and the practical use of online technologies in professional counseling compared to existing technologies used in the professional consultation. We also consider the capabilities and limitations of these online technologies in solving the basic problems of vocational guidance (information, diagnostic, moral and emotional support of the client, assistance in decision-making and career planning). For example, the development of the author's methodology of “Choose and Go” designed for adolescents’ online use, shows the problem facing the designers of such software products, solutions to these problems. The basic ideas of this methodology are: comprehensive assessment of select work on the basis of full consideration of the psychological structure of the work; the use of expert assessments of the extent to which components of professional activity correspond to the official list of the integrated groups of specialties; the use in the modes of the real and online professional counseling; the account not only the desires of a teenager, but his/her current and potential abilities.
Available Online: 09/10/2017
The results of the development of a new computer guidance method for senior schoolchildren on the basis of “Formulas of the profession” (E.A. Klimov) and a modern scheme for the analysis of professions (N.S. Pryazhnikov) are presented. The main stages of obtaining expert estimates are shown, which made it possible to correlate the components of professional activity with the official list of enlarged specialties of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. The advantage of 3-level grades of schoolchildren (“I want”, “I can now” and “could in the future”) is considered before the traditional assessment of schoolchildren’s actual preferences. In the process of choosing a profession, the preferred characteristics of future work activity are set not in the form of direct estimates of their traditional designations (subject, purpose, means, conditions, etc.), but through paired comparisons of the main labor activities and training activities. The computer-based online testing system works with the methodology through the Web-interface on modern software platforms — Windows, Android, MacOS, iOS, Linux.
Available Online: 12/30/2016
The article presents the results of experimental study that found the effects of attention and working memory on the change blindness phenomenon manifestation. In “flicker” paradigm 93 participants solved the task of change detection in two consistently presenting images. The participants was divided into several groups by the magnitudes of concentration and allocation of attention, estimated using Bourdon’s correction test, as well as on the accuracy and time of identification of the target stimulus in the DMS working memory test. Found a positive influence of the concentration and allocation of attention on the search changes duration. The effects of working memory indexes were different: improving the accuracy of identification of the target stimulus was associated with an increase in the search time but in contrast the speed of identification positive effects on the search changes duration. The results allow to suppose that the specific role of attention and memory resources in the change blindness.
Available Online: 03/31/2015
The psychophysical research on loudness discrimination of tonal signals (method 2AFC) has been carried out, N=106. The influence of self-regulation (questionnaires: HAKEMP-90, Style of self-regulation of behavior, Self-organization of behavior) on RT and sensory sensitivity index A' was found out. The qualitative analysis of individual ways of discrimination of signals was carried out. The relationships between loudness discrimination effectiveness and self-regulation processes characteristics mediating the sensory task decision were revealed. The applying the principle of subject`s activity to traditional psychophysical research was accomplished in the frameworks of differential-psychological approach in psychophysics (A.N. Gusev). It is developed the idea that the variation of stimuli uncertainty leads to appropriate transformation of the functional organ (A.N. Leontiev, A.A. Ukhtomskiy) relevant to sensory discrimination task.
Available Online: 06/30/2013