Relevance. In psychosomatics, subjective attributions of the causes of the disease are considered as one of the components of illness representation. In somnology, the disfunctional beliefs about illness reasons are considered as a factor in insomnia perpetuation. Study of the characteristics of subjective perceptions of sleep disorders reasons in good sleepers versus sleep disorders, as well as their relationship to well-being, can help to clarify theoretical knowledge about the functions of reasons’ representations in various illnesses.
Objective. The aim was to compare the subjective reasons of sleep disorders in good sleepers, insomnia, parasomnias and sleep apnea, as well as to reveal the relationship between beliefs about the reasons of sleep disorders and anxiety and depression.
Methods. The clinical group consisted of 77 patients with sleep apnea syndrome, 18 patients with parasomnias, 105 patients with chronic insomnia who filled the Checklists of Sleep Quality, Subjective Reasons of Sleep Disorders, Screening for Sleep Apnea, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. In 46 patients with apnea, 15 patients with parasomnias and 93 patients with insomnia, polysomnography was performed over one night. The control group included 102 people, 67 of them with periodic sleep complaints, and 33 without sleep complaints who filled Checklists of Sleep Quality, Subjective Reasons of Sleep Disorders.
Results. Good sleepers are characterized by a wide range of sleep problems’ attributions. In case of complaints for some sleep problems, the focus on emotional causes was enhanced while in case of chronic disorders, the number of reasons was narrowed to those specific for that sleep disorder. In both apnea and insomnia, subjective belief that sleep is disturbed by unpleasant sensations in the arms and legs was especially stressful for participants and was associated with depression and marginally associated with anxiety. Attribution of sleep disorders to life events was associated with a higher level of anxiety, especially in insomnia.
Conclusions. The data supports the hypothesis that some subjective reasons of sleep disorders are associated with psychological distress, regardless of the subjective and objective quality of sleep.
Available Online: 05/30/2019
Relevance. Both personality and clinical psychology suppose many empirical examples describing the disengagement from activity and shifting to another one as quite effective: e.g., unfulfilled dreams and regret for them, severe illnesses or disabling conditions, etc. These examples demonstrate the importance of study of refusal from the goal and goal change as special self-regulatory processes that are not reducible to other processes of self-regulation (e.g., planning, modeling, achievement) and can be productive. Such studies require a validated measure.
Objective. The aim of this work was to validate the Russian-language version of the Goal Disengagement and Re-Engagement Scale, proposed in the self-regulation theory by C. Carver and M. Scheier.
Methods. 287 students and 4792 employees of a large production organization filled out the Russian-language version of the Goal Disengagement and Re-Engagement Scale (Wrosch et al., 2003a). The students also filled the Inventory of Styles of Behavior Self-regulation, a modification of the J. Kuhl’s Action Control Scale Test, a Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire.
Results. Both internal consistency and factor structure of the scale were demonstrated in both samples. The external validity of the scale is confirmed by the expected pattern of correlations with action / state orientation, behavior self-regulation and strategies of cognitive regulation of emotions. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis show that goal disengagement and reengagement differ from other aspects of self-regulation of behavior not only structurally (at the level of their correlations with each other) but also functionally: after statistical control of the other aspects of self-regulation, goal disengagement and reengagement still predict a number of cognitive strategies regulation of emotions.
Conclusions. The psychometric properties of the Russian-language version of the Goal Disengagement and Re-Engagement Scale are sufficient for its application for research purposes. Further studies could focus on the differentiation of the process of goal change and other self-regulatory processes, especially their effect on the productivity, health, well-being.
Available Online: 06/20/2018
The problem of differentiation of personal profiles based on MMPI is traditionally solved either theoretically with help of the 2- or 3-peak coding system, or is empirically based on the results of a cluster analysis of clinical scales. In the first case, the encoding system looks unreasonably complicated. In the second case, the results are vulnerable to criticism, on the one hand, due to interference of the scales themselves, and, on the other hand, due to not taking into account measurement errors and due to restrictions for clusters differentiated. In this paper, we propose an alternative based on the latent profile analysis of restructured clinical scales of MMPI-2. Based on the normative sample of the validation of the Russian-language Minnesota multifactorial personality questionnaire, second version, (MMPI-2, N = 1443), four types of latent profiles were identified: normative one with mean values for most scales and a small peak on the Hypomanic Activation scale, “neurotic” profile with an increase in the “neurotic triad” scales, “psychopathic-like” profile with high scores on all scales and peaks on the scales of schizophrenia, paranoia and psychasthenia, and “defensive / suppressive” profile with extremely low scores on all scales and a small peak on the scale of low level of positive emotions. Profiles’ comparison by the content and supplementary scales of MMPI-2 and "Big Five" traits suggests that in those having the “psychopathic-like” profile, the risk of externalized problems is maximal and the risk of internalized problems is high. Those with the “neurotic” profile have a high risk of internalized problems, while their distinctive trait is the experience of social discomfort. The analysis of “defensive” profile suggests possible difficulties associated with chronic suppression of emotions, in particular, somatization and sudden affect expressions.
Available Online: 10/30/2017
Paper presents results of validation of the Russian version of The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire developed by R. Moss-Morris and colleagues for the diagnostic of patient’s beliefs about causes, duration, consequences, treatment of illness, and their ability to control it. The sample (N=80) included three groups of patients aged 17—26 years (mean age 20.2±2.8 years) with nonpsychotic depression within mood disorders (n=33), personality disorders (n=22) and schizotypal disorder (n=25). In order to establish the external validity of the questionnaire patients filled Beck’s Cognitive Insight Scale, Illness and TreatmentRelated Locus of Control Scale and TreatmentRelated Selfefficacy Scale . Factor validity and reliability of IPQR was demonstrated . Patients of all three groups tend to explain their illness by personality and (to a lesser extent) situational factors, to believe in the importance and effectiveness of the treatment, in their ability to control their illness. They consider illness as shortterm and not of a cyclical nature. Supporting the external validity of the questionnaire we demonstrated that beliefs about illness and its reasons correlates with results of the interview, cognitive insight, illness and treatmentrelated locus of control and treatmentrelated self-efficacy.
Available Online: 04/15/2016
The paper analyzes opportunities and limitations of stage models in health psychology (trans-theoretical model, precaution adoption process model) comparing to traditional continuum models and actively developing self-regulation models. Theoretical basis for stage models (orientation to practical problems, analysis of behavior dynamics and associated processes, descriptive approach, understanding of the model effectiveness as an accuracy of classification and description of the transitions between stages) and problematic spheres (discrete/continuous process of change, descriptive/explanatory nature of the basic constructs). Heuristic nature of stages models is proved in solving the original problem of behavior description while their vulnerability to criticism is demonstrated because of the implicit transition to the problem of his explanation.
Available Online: 12/31/2014
There is a growing interest in psychiatry and somatic medicine to the cognitive approach in psychology was associated with an increased interest in the psychological and behavioral factors involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of hypochondriacal disorders (HD). Th e paper gives a review of modern psychological approaches to hypochondriasis. First, we analyze the role of psychological phenomena in the diagnostics of HD demonstrating necessity of hierarchical and system relationships between development and dynamics of unexplained somatic symptoms, generalized anxiety and health anxiety. Second, four factors possibly precipitating, triggering or perpetuating disease are analyzed: somatosensory amplifi cation, health anxiety, motivational and personality factors, illness behavior, “hypochondriac” discourse adopted in contemporary society. The dynamics of hypochondriacal symptoms when each of the four factors dominate in the clinical picture is discussed from body regulation psychology approach and cultural-historical approach in psychosomatics. Possibilities of developing and validating a psychological model of hypochondriasis are suggested.
Available Online: 09/30/2013
The paper discusses the role of hardiness in organizations and the issues of its assessment. The results of a study aimed at development and validation of a short 24item Russian version of the Hardiness Survey by D.A. Leontiev and E.I. Rasskazova are presented. Using a student sample data (N=1285), a subset from the set of 45 existing items were selected for the short version that was subsequently validated in a large process plant employee sample (N=4647). Using confirmatory factor analysis, a onedimensional structure of the test was supported (with a single hardiness factor and two independent method factors corresponding to systematic bias associated with regular and reversescored items). The resulting shortened scale showed high reliability (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.91). Convergent validity was demonstrated by predictable associations with other measures of psychological wellbeing, including dispositional optimism, optimistic attributional style, hope, general selfefficacy, tolerance for ambiguity, subjective vitality, life satisfaction, work satisfaction, and intrinsic motivation in academic and professional domains. The resulting short version of the Hardiness Survey can be recommended for diverse samples.
Available Online: 06/30/2013
The psychological model of insomnia based on cognitive model of insomnia and cultural approach in psychosomatics is discussed in this article. There are emphasized perpetuating factors of insomnia and different kind of behavior as insomnia consequences. Social psychological factors triggering and increasing anxiety and attentions to sleep are supposed: personality and culturally specific beliefs about sleep and insomnia (beliefs about sleep hygiene, sleep control, attitude to insomnia in the society). Different patients’ reactions to the insomnia — psychological dependence on medicine, sleep “ritual”, self-restrictive behavior, and active changes in life — influence on the development and treatment outcomes in a different manner.