The “Risk Triad” phenomenon is divergence of subject’s self-evaluation height and goal choosing level, i.e. person’s level of aspirations, that is accompanied by statistically significant increase of index of anxiety (aggression and frustration), unlike convergence of level characteristics of individual’s evaluation of self and his goal choice. Dissociation of level parameters of self-evaluation and aspirations has two types: aspirations may either exceed self-evaluation or not achieve it. Verification of dissociative complex on the data of arterial hypertension (essential form) and peptic ulcer (of duodenum), i.e. on the data of illnesses, for which in medicine there is no question about their mainly psychogenic etiology, reveals not just the presence of “triad”, but its more extensive and intensive manifestation at named diseases. There is no doubt in fact that mismatch of self-evaluation and aspirations heights, connected with conspicuous increase of index of anxiety is a potentially pathological complex. It was initially called “risk triad psychosomatic diseases”. However evidence of last researches, indicating significantly more frequent contagion acute respiratory diseases of children at the age of 10—16 years with “Risk Triad” (4—5 times per year) in comparison with its absence (1—2 times per year), necessitates to expand the incidence of founded phenomenon. Elicited complex constitutes not so much ordinary variation of ratio of separate psychical formations, as their dangerous combination. Early manifestation of “Risk Triad” in ontogenesis (10—11 years) requires creation of ways of its correction. The article presents scheme of such correction for hyper-aspirations type, when level of subject’s goal choice is higher than his self-evaluation. Main tasks of created scheme, results of its application with explicit explanation of presented cases are analyzed.
Available Online: 03/31/2014
The aim of the article is to introduce the concept of personality and character which is based on the activity theory approach by A.N. Leontiev. The introductory part of the work gives a short history of characterology whose analysis reveals apparent uncertainty in understanding the subject matters of character psychology and personality psychology. They are directly (character) or indirectly (personality) confined to a person’s psychic individuality. However, the specific content of this individuality appears to be so broad and various that characterology starts losing its clear contours while personality does not find any generally accepted definition. In the framework of the developed concept, personality is regarded as a structure of life meanings while character is seen as an instrumental level which accepts life meanings for performance and implements them in human actions. Nonidentity of the two studied formations is shown: they are different in terms of content, function in human psychics, units of structure, general construction and genesis. Some examples are given based on the data of ethnic psychology. They show how a sense formation which is the same for different nations is realized through unequal characterological techniques. On the other hand, a few sense formations can be expressed by a single action or stereotype. In conclusion problems of correlation between personality and character and the source of their generation are discussed.
Available Online: 06/30/2013
Academic achievements are investigated in connection with IQ, self-evaluation and its combinations with level of aspirations. It is found lowering of academic achievements with reduction of self-evaluation. In case level of aspirations was higher of level self-evaluation academic achievements increased, in contrary case achievements diminished. Self-evaluation is very reliable predictor of studies efficacy, but IQ did not lose its prognostic power as yet.
It is impossible to give English variant of the abstract because English language does not have exact analogy of the Russian notion «самооценка».