Galherin's theory of orientation and methods of psychological research
The relevance of the study. The paper raises the problem of methods of psychological research, this problem is reflected in written and oral speeches of P. Ya. Galperin. The scientific significance of this problem is due to the fact that using the forming method allows us to obtain data concerning the laws of the formation of a new action in the conditions of not only controlled, but also spontaneous formation.
The purpose of the study is to obtain scientific psychological information concerning the forming method. The key concept of the theory of P. Ya. Galperin is the concept of orientation, which determines the success of the action.Polemizing with J. Piaget on the question of age capabilities of the child, P. Ya. Galperin experimentally showed that in the conditions of forming method "real mental actions and concepts" are formed much earlier than in the traditional spontaneous formation.If in the first case the process of formation becomes generally controllable, in the second it is only directed.The transition to the method of formation by stages, stressed P. Ya. Galperin, creates a basic for an appreciable improvement of the methods of instruction and means a radical change in the methods of psychological research.
Methods - historical and psychological analysis, comparative analysis.
The results. The publication consists of three parts. The main part (the middle one) is P.Ya.Galperin's article «The cross-sectional method and the method of formation by stages». It is published on the materials of the personal archive of P. Ya. Galperin.The article, written by P. Ya. Galperin on the results of his speech at the International psychological Congress in Moscow in 1966, was previously published in the journal "Voprosy psyikhologii", in this form article is a corrected version by P. Ya. Galperin.
The first part of the paper is a short introduction providing a general characteristic of the Piaget and Galperin discussion on Psychological Congress.In conclusion (the third part) an attempt is made to identify the main lines on which it is possible to compare the views of P. Ya. Halperin and J. Piaget.
The conclusion. The reference to the materials of Piaget and Galperin discussion is not only of historical and theoretical importance, but also allows us to outline the prospects of current scientific research in the field of genetic psychology.
The article is dedicated to the 55th anniversary of the XIX International Psychological Congress.
Burmenskaya G.V. (2019). L.F.Obuxova: urokinauchny`eichelovecheskie. Eshhe raz k voprosu o strategiyax issledovaniya umstvennogo razvitiya rebenka [Lydmila Obukhova: scientific and human lessons. On the strategies of studying child cognitive development] Nacional`ny`j psixologicheskij zhurnal [National Psychological Journal], 2 (34), 10–18.
Gal`perin P.Ya. (1966). Metod, fakty` i teorii v psixologii formirovaniya umstvenny`x dejstvij i ponyatij [Metods, facts and theories in the psychology of formation of mental actions and conceptions]. In Materialy` XVIII Mezhdunarodnogo psixologicheskogo kongressa. Simpozium 24. Psixologiya formirovaniya ponyatij i umstvenny`x dejstvij [Papers, presented at Symposium 24 of the 18th International Congress of PsychologyConcept formation and “inner action”] (pp. 38–58).
Gal`perin P.Ya. (1966a). Metod “srezov” i metod poe`tapnogo formirovaniya v issledovanii detskogo my`shleniya [The cross-sectional method and the method of formation by stages]Voprosy` psixologii. [Psychology Issues], 4, 128–135.
Gal`perin P.Ya. (1985). Metody` obucheniya i umstvennoe razvitie rebenka [Methods of teaching and the child's cognitive development]. Moscow: MSU Press.
Gal`perin P.Ya. (2017). Opy`t izucheniya formirovaniya umstvenny`x dejstvij [Experience in studying the formation of mental actions] Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 14. Psikhologiya [Moscow University Psychology Bulletin], 4, 3–20.
Gal`perin P.Ya. Nauchny`j arxiv [Scientific archive].
Zhan Piazhe: teoriya, e`ksperimenty`, diskussii: Sb. Statej. Sost. i obshh. red. L.F.Obuxovoj i G.V.Burmenskoj; predisl. L.F.Obuxovoj (2001) [Jean Piaget: theory, experiments, discussions: Collection of articles]. Moscow: Gardariki.
Zaporozhecz A.V. (1978). Znachenie rannix periodov detstva dlya formirovaniya detskoj lichnosti [The importance of early childhood for the formation of children's personality] In: L.I. Ancyferova (Otv. red.). Princip razvitiya v psixologii [The Principle of Development in Psychology] (pp. 243–267). Moscow: Nauka.
Obuxova L.F. (1995). Detskaya psixologiya: teorii, fakty`, problemy` [Child psychology: theories, facts, problems.] Moscow: Trivola.
Obuxova L.F. (2016). K 120-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya L.S.Vy`gotskogo i Zh.Piazhe [On account 0f the 120-th Birthday Anniversary]Kul`turno-istoricheskaya psixologiya [Cultural-Historical Psychology], 3, 229–231.
Obuxova L.F. (2014). P.Ya. Gal`perin sredi sovremennikov [P. Ya. Halperin among contemporaries] Voprosy` psixologii [Psychology Issues], 2, 65–75.
Obuxova L.F. (2010) Teoriya P.Ya. Gal`perina – stanovlenie novoj otrasli psixologii [Galperin Theory — Establishment of a New Branchin Psychology] Kul`turno-istoricheskaya psixologiya [Cultural-Historical Psychology], 4, 4–10.
Obuxova L.F. (1966). E`ksperimental`ny`j analiz nekotory`x “fenomenov Piazhe” [Experimental analysis of some “Piaget phenomena”] Voprosy` psixologii [Psychology Issues], 4, 136–142.
Piazhe Zh. (1966). Kak deti obrazuyut matematicheskie ponyatiya [How children form mathematical concepts] Voprosy` psixologii [Psychology Issues], 4, 121–135.
Flejvell Dzh. (1967). Geneticheskaya psixologiya Zhana Piazhe. S predisl. Zhana Piazhe [Genetic psychology of Jean Piaget] Per. s angl. Moscow: Prosveshhenie.
Keywords: P.Ya. Galperin's theory of staged formation of mental actions and notions; the cross-sectional method and the forming method; orientation; genetic psychology
Available online since: 30.03.2021