Moscow University Psychology Bulletin
ISSN 0137-0936 (Print)
ISSN 2309-9852 (Online)
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ISSN 0137-0936 (Print)
ISSN 2309-9852 (Online)
Galherin's theory of orientation and methods of psychological research

Galherin's theory of orientation and methods of psychological research

The relevance of the study. The paper raises the problem of methods of psychological research, this problem is reflected in written and oral speeches of P. Ya. Galperin. The scientific significance of this problem is due to the fact that using the forming method allows us to obtain data concerning the laws of the formation of a new action in the conditions of not only controlled, but also spontaneous formation.

The purpose of the study is to obtain scientific psychological information concerning the forming method. The key concept of the theory of P. Ya. Galperin is the concept of orientation, which determines the success of the action.Polemizing with J. Piaget on the question of age capabilities of the child, P. Ya. Galperin experimentally showed that in the conditions of forming method "real mental actions and concepts" are formed much earlier than in the traditional spontaneous formation.If in the first case the process of formation becomes generally controllable, in the second it is only directed.The transition to the method of formation by stages, stressed P. Ya. Galperin, creates a basic for an appreciable improvement of the methods of instruction and means a radical change in the methods of psychological research.

Methods - historical and psychological analysis, comparative analysis.

The results. The publication consists of three parts. The main part (the middle one) is P.Ya.Galperin's article «The cross-sectional method and the method of formation by stages». It is published on the materials of the personal archive of P. Ya. Galperin.The article, written by P. Ya. Galperin on the results of his speech at the International psychological Congress in Moscow in 1966, was previously published in the journal "Voprosy psyikhologii", in this form article is a corrected version by P. Ya. Galperin.

The first part of the paper is a short introduction providing a general characteristic of the Piaget and Galperin discussion on Psychological Congress.In conclusion (the third part) an attempt is made to identify the main lines on which it is possible to compare the views of P. Ya. Halperin and J. Piaget.

The conclusion. The reference to the materials of Piaget and Galperin discussion is not only of historical and theoretical importance, but also allows us to outline the prospects of current scientific research in the field of genetic psychology.

The article is dedicated to the 55th anniversary of the XIX International Psychological Congress.

References

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Recieved: 12/23/2019

Accepted: 09/11/2020

Published: 03/30/2021

Keywords: P.Ya. Galperin's theory of staged formation of mental actions and notions; the cross-sectional method and the forming method; orientation; genetic psychology

Available online since: 30.03.2021

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