In this paper results of empirical researches (this results were received in experiment and professional supervision “Diagnostics of the altered states of consciousness”) in which analytic introspection was used as method to induce the states of consciousness, transitive to altered are considered. Opportunities of the Leontiev’s theory of the structure of consciousness to explane a phenomenology of the altered states of consciousness are examined. We offer explanations of such phenomena as a loss of tridimentionality and constancy of perception (the sizes, forms, position in space, colors and brightness), mistakes in recognition of objects and its’ properties (in particular, pareydolia), a derealization, a detailed elaboration has been explaned. Results of experiments with analytic introspection allow elaborating of A.N. Leontiev’s ideas about functions of a sensual fabric of an image.
It is commonly accepted that the theory of activity by A.N. Leontiev was the attempt to overcome so called “word-centrism” developed by L.S. Vygotsky. At the same time there are some arguments, that theory of activity was developed to solve the problem, which had been formulated by Vygotsky. He tried to overcome double-factorial determination of psychic, i.e. to go from social to psychological determination. To solve the problem Vygotsky modified his own theory and changed the main concept from high mental function to system structure of conciseness and interfunctional interactions. Vygotsky suggested emotional experience as the unit of psychic. Group of psychologists worked in Kharkov tried to solve this problem in another way. They supposed that activity mediates as social, as physiological factors. This decision was more materialistic from their point of view. Reveling the real basic theoretical problem of theory of activity is important for understanding its main statements and experimental results. Analysis of investigations, conducted by the adepts of the theory of activity, leads to understanding of holistic nature of activity.
The fundamental principles of university education (forming of dialectical thinking, the unity of teaching and upbringing, manufacture of need in self-development) taken from A.N. Leontiev’s perspective are marked out and analyzed in the article based on a number of sources including archive materials. The problems and outlooks of applying of Leontiev’s ideas are discussed in the context of current reforms of secondary and high school in Russia.